Module fpdf.fpdf

Expand source code
#!/usr/bin/env python
# ****************************************************************************
# * Software: FPDF for python                                                *
# * License:  LGPL v3.0+                                                     *
# *                                                                          *
# * Original Author (PHP):  Olivier PLATHEY 2004-12-31                       *
# * Ported to Python 2.4 by Max (maxpat78@yahoo.it) on 2006-05               *
# * Maintainer:  Mariano Reingart (reingart@gmail.com) et al since 2008 est. *
# * Maintainer:  David Alexander (daveankin@gmail.com) et al since 2017 est. *
# * Maintainer:  Lucas Cimon et al since 2021 est.                           *
# ****************************************************************************
import hashlib, io, logging, math, os, re, sys, warnings
from collections import defaultdict
from collections.abc import Sequence
from contextlib import contextmanager
from datetime import datetime, timezone
from functools import wraps
from html import unescape
from math import isclose
from numbers import Number
from os.path import splitext
from pathlib import Path
from typing import Callable, List, NamedTuple, Optional, Union

try:
    from endesive import signer
    from cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization import pkcs12
except ImportError:
    pkcs12, signer = None, None
from fontTools import ttLib

try:
    from PIL.Image import Image
except ImportError:
    warnings.warn(
        "Pillow could not be imported - fpdf2 will not be able to add any image"
    )

    class Image:
        # The class must exist for some isinstance checks below
        pass


from . import drawing
from .actions import URIAction
from .annotations import (
    AnnotationDict,
    PDFAnnotation,
    PDFEmbeddedFile,
    DEFAULT_ANNOT_FLAGS,
)
from .deprecation import WarnOnDeprecatedModuleAttributes
from .encryption import StandardSecurityHandler
from .enums import (
    Align,
    AnnotationFlag,
    AnnotationName,
    EncryptionMethod,
    FileAttachmentAnnotationName,
    PageLayout,
    PageMode,
    PathPaintRule,
    RenderStyle,
    TextMarkupType,
    TextMode,
    XPos,
    YPos,
    Corner,
    FontDescriptorFlags,
    AccessPermission,
    CharVPos,
)
from .errors import FPDFException, FPDFPageFormatException, FPDFUnicodeEncodingException
from .fonts import fpdf_charwidths
from .graphics_state import GraphicsStateMixin
from .html import HTML2FPDF
from .image_parsing import SUPPORTED_IMAGE_FILTERS, get_img_info, load_image
from .line_break import Fragment, MultiLineBreak, TextLine
from .linearization import LinearizedOutputProducer
from .output import OutputProducer, PDFFontDescriptor, PDFPage, ZOOM_CONFIGS
from .outline import OutlineSection
from .recorder import FPDFRecorder
from .structure_tree import StructureTreeBuilder
from .sign import Signature
from .svg import Percent, SVGObject
from .syntax import DestinationXYZ
from .util import (
    escape_parens,
    format_date,
    get_scale_factor,
)

# Public global variables:
FPDF_VERSION = "2.6.1"
PAGE_FORMATS = {
    "a3": (841.89, 1190.55),
    "a4": (595.28, 841.89),
    "a5": (420.94, 595.28),
    "letter": (612, 792),
    "legal": (612, 1008),
}
"Supported page format names & dimensions"

# Private global variables:
LOGGER = logging.getLogger(__name__)
HERE = Path(__file__).resolve().parent
FPDF_FONT_DIR = HERE / "font"
LAYOUT_ALIASES = {
    "default": None,
    "single": PageLayout.SINGLE_PAGE,
    "continuous": PageLayout.ONE_COLUMN,
    "two": PageLayout.TWO_COLUMN_LEFT,
}


class TitleStyle(NamedTuple):
    font_family: Optional[str] = None
    font_style: Optional[str] = None
    font_size_pt: Optional[int] = None
    color: Union[int, tuple] = None  # grey scale or (red, green, blue)
    underline: bool = False
    t_margin: Optional[int] = None
    l_margin: Optional[int] = None
    b_margin: Optional[int] = None


class ToCPlaceholder(NamedTuple):
    render_function: Callable
    start_page: int
    y: int
    pages: int = 1


class SubsetMap:
    """Holds a mapping of used characters and their position in the font's subset

    Characters that must be mapped on their actual unicode must be part of the
    `identities` list during object instanciation. These non-negative values should
    only appear once in the list. `pick()` can be used to get the characters
    corresponding position in the subset. If it's not yet part of the object, a new
    position is acquired automatically. This implementation always tries to return
    the lowest possible representation.
    """

    def __init__(self, identities: List[int]):
        super().__init__()
        self._next = 0

        # sort list to ease deletion once _next
        # becomes higher than first reservation
        self._reserved = sorted(identities)

        # int(x) to ensure values are integers
        self._map = {x: int(x) for x in self._reserved}

    def __len__(self):
        return len(self._map)

    def pick(self, unicode: int):
        if not unicode in self._map:
            while self._next in self._reserved:
                self._next += 1
                if self._next > self._reserved[0]:
                    del self._reserved[0]

            self._map[unicode] = self._next
            self._next += 1

        return self._map.get(unicode)

    def dict(self):
        return self._map.copy()


# Disabling this check due to the "format" parameter below:
# pylint: disable=redefined-builtin
def get_page_format(format, k=None):
    """Return page width and height size in points.

    Throws FPDFPageFormatException

    `format` can be either a 2-tuple or one of 'a3', 'a4', 'a5', 'letter', or
    'legal'.

    If format is a tuple, then the return value is the tuple's values
    given in the units specified on this document in the constructor,
    multiplied by the corresponding scale factor `k`, taken from instance
    variable `self.k`.

    If format is a string, the (width, height) tuple returned is in points.
    For a width and height of 8.5 * 11, 72 dpi is assumed, so the value
    returned is (8.5 * 72, 11 * 72), or (612, 792). Additional formats can be
    added by adding fields to the `PAGE_FORMATS` dictionary with a
    case insensitive key (the name of the new format) and 2-tuple value of
    (width, height) in dots per inch with a 72 dpi resolution.
    """
    if isinstance(format, str):
        format = format.lower()
        if format in PAGE_FORMATS:
            return PAGE_FORMATS[format]
        raise FPDFPageFormatException(format, unknown=True)

    if k is None:
        raise FPDFPageFormatException(format, one=True)

    try:
        return format[0] * k, format[1] * k
    except Exception as e:
        args = f"{format}, {k}"
        raise FPDFPageFormatException(f"Arguments must be numbers: {args}") from e


def check_page(fn):
    """Decorator to protect drawing methods"""

    @wraps(fn)
    def wrapper(self, *args, **kwargs):
        if not self.page and not kwargs.get("split_only"):
            raise FPDFException("No page open, you need to call add_page() first")
        return fn(self, *args, **kwargs)

    return wrapper


class FPDF(GraphicsStateMixin):
    "PDF Generation class"
    MARKDOWN_BOLD_MARKER = "**"
    MARKDOWN_ITALICS_MARKER = "__"
    MARKDOWN_UNDERLINE_MARKER = "--"
    MARKDOWN_LINK_REGEX = re.compile(r"^\[([^][]+)\]\(([^()]+)\)(.*)$")
    MARKDOWN_LINK_COLOR = None

    HTML2FPDF_CLASS = HTML2FPDF

    def __init__(
        self,
        orientation="portrait",
        unit="mm",
        format="A4",
        font_cache_dir="DEPRECATED",
    ):
        """
        Args:
            orientation (str): possible values are "portrait" (can be abbreviated "P")
                or "landscape" (can be abbreviated "L"). Default to "portrait".
            unit (str, int, float): possible values are "pt", "mm", "cm", "in", or a number.
                A point equals 1/72 of an inch, that is to say about 0.35 mm (an inch being 2.54 cm).
                This is a very common unit in typography; font sizes are expressed in this unit.
                If given a number, then it will be treated as the number of points per unit.  (eg. 72 = 1 in)
                Default to "mm".
            format (str): possible values are "a3", "a4", "a5", "letter", "legal" or a tuple
                (width, height) expressed in the given unit. Default to "a4".
            font_cache_dir (Path or str): [**DEPRECATED since v2.5.1**] unused
        """
        if font_cache_dir != "DEPRECATED":
            warnings.warn(
                '"font_cache_dir" parameter is deprecated, unused and will soon be removed',
                DeprecationWarning,
                stacklevel=2,
            )
        super().__init__()
        self.page = 0  # current page number
        self.pages = {}  # array of PDFPage objects starting at index 1
        self.fonts = {}  # map font string keys to dicts describing the fonts used
        self.images = {}  # map image identifiers to dicts describing the images
        self.links = {}  # array of Destination objects starting at index 1
        self.embedded_files = []  # array of PDFEmbeddedFile

        self.in_footer = False  # flag set while rendering footer
        # indicates that we are inside an .unbreakable() code block:
        self._in_unbreakable = False
        self._lasth = 0  # height of last cell printed
        self.str_alias_nb_pages = "{nb}"

        self._angle = 0  # used by deprecated method: rotate()
        self.xmp_metadata = None
        # Define the compression algorithm used when embedding images:
        self.image_filter = "AUTO"
        self.page_duration = 0  # optional pages display duration, cf. add_page()
        self.page_transition = None  # optional pages transition, cf. add_page()
        self.allow_images_transparency = True
        # Do nothing by default. Allowed values: 'WARN', 'DOWNSCALE':
        self.oversized_images = None
        self.oversized_images_ratio = 2  # number of pixels per UserSpace point
        self.struct_builder = StructureTreeBuilder()
        self._toc_placeholder = None  # optional ToCPlaceholder instance
        self._outline = []  # list of OutlineSection
        self._sign_key = None
        self.section_title_styles = {}  # level -> TitleStyle

        # Standard fonts
        self.core_fonts = {
            "courier": "Courier",
            "courierB": "Courier-Bold",
            "courierI": "Courier-Oblique",
            "courierBI": "Courier-BoldOblique",
            "helvetica": "Helvetica",
            "helveticaB": "Helvetica-Bold",
            "helveticaI": "Helvetica-Oblique",
            "helveticaBI": "Helvetica-BoldOblique",
            "times": "Times-Roman",
            "timesB": "Times-Bold",
            "timesI": "Times-Italic",
            "timesBI": "Times-BoldItalic",
            "symbol": "Symbol",
            "zapfdingbats": "ZapfDingbats",
        }
        self.core_fonts_encoding = "latin-1"
        "Font encoding, Latin-1 by default"
        # Replace these fonts with these core fonts
        self.font_aliases = {
            "arial": "helvetica",
            "couriernew": "courier",
            "timesnewroman": "times",
        }
        # Scale factor
        self.k = get_scale_factor(unit)

        # Graphics state variables defined as properties by GraphicsStateMixin.
        # We set their default values here.
        self.font_family = ""  # current font family
        self.font_style = ""  # current font style
        self.font_size_pt = 12  # current font size in points
        self.font_stretching = 100  # current font stretching
        self.char_spacing = 0  # current character spacing
        self.underline = False  # underlining flag
        self.current_font = {}  # current font
        self.draw_color = self.DEFAULT_DRAW_COLOR
        self.fill_color = self.DEFAULT_FILL_COLOR
        self.text_color = self.DEFAULT_TEXT_COLOR
        self.page_background = None
        self.dash_pattern = dict(dash=0, gap=0, phase=0)
        self.line_width = 0.567 / self.k  # line width (0.2 mm)
        self.text_mode = TextMode.FILL
        # end of grapics state variables

        self.dw_pt, self.dh_pt = get_page_format(format, self.k)
        self._set_orientation(orientation, self.dw_pt, self.dh_pt)
        self.def_orientation = self.cur_orientation
        # Page spacing
        # Page margins (1 cm)
        margin = (7200 / 254) / self.k
        self.x, self.y, self.l_margin, self.t_margin = 0, 0, 0, 0
        self.set_margins(margin, margin)
        self.x, self.y = self.l_margin, self.t_margin
        self.c_margin = margin / 10.0  # Interior cell margin (1 mm)
        # sets self.auto_page_break, self.b_margin & self.page_break_trigger:
        self.set_auto_page_break(True, 2 * margin)
        self.set_display_mode("fullwidth")  # Full width display mode
        self._page_mode = None
        self.viewer_preferences = None  # optional instance of ViewerPreferences
        self.compress = True  # switch enabling pages content compression
        self.pdf_version = "1.3"  # Set default PDF version No.
        self.creation_date = datetime.now(timezone.utc)
        self._security_handler = None

        self._current_draw_context = None
        self._drawing_graphics_state_registry = drawing.GraphicsStateDictRegistry()

        self._record_text_quad_points = False

        # page number -> array of 8 × n numbers:
        self._text_quad_points = defaultdict(list)

        # final buffer holding the PDF document in-memory - defined only after calling output():
        self.buffer = None

    def set_encryption(
        self,
        owner_password,
        user_password=None,
        encryption_method=EncryptionMethod.RC4,
        permissions=AccessPermission.all(),
        encrypt_metadata=False,
    ):
        """ "
        Activate encryption of the document content.

        Args:
            owner_password (str): mandatory. The owner password allows to perform any change on the document,
                including removing all encryption and access permissions.
            user_password (str): optional. If a user password is set, the content of the document will be encrypted
                and a password prompt displayed when a user opens the document.
                The document will only be displayed after either the user or owner password is entered.
            encryption_method (fpdf.enums.EncryptionMethod, str): algorithm to be used to encrypt the document.
                Defaults to RC4.
            permissions (fpdf.enums.AccessPermission): specify access permissions granted
                when the document is opened with user access. Defaults to ALL.
            encrypt_metadata (bool): whether to also encrypt document metadata (author, creation date, etc.).
                Defaults to False.
        """
        self._security_handler = StandardSecurityHandler(
            self,
            owner_password=owner_password,
            user_password=user_password,
            permission=permissions,
            encryption_method=encryption_method,
            encrypt_metadata=encrypt_metadata,
        )

    def write_html(self, text, *args, **kwargs):
        """
        Parse HTML and convert it to PDF.
        cf. https://pyfpdf.github.io/fpdf2/HTML.html
        """
        kwargs2 = vars(self)
        # Method arguments must override class & instance attributes:
        kwargs2.update(kwargs)
        html2pdf = self.HTML2FPDF_CLASS(self, *args, **kwargs2)
        text = unescape(text)  # To deal with HTML entities
        html2pdf.feed(text)

    def _set_min_pdf_version(self, version):
        self.pdf_version = max(self.pdf_version, version)

    @property
    def is_ttf_font(self):
        return self.current_font.get("type") == "TTF"

    @property
    def page_mode(self):
        return self._page_mode

    @page_mode.setter
    def page_mode(self, page_mode):
        self._page_mode = PageMode.coerce(page_mode)
        if self._page_mode == PageMode.USE_ATTACHMENTS:
            self._set_min_pdf_version("1.6")
        elif self._page_mode == PageMode.USE_OC:
            self._set_min_pdf_version("1.5")

    @property
    def epw(self):
        """
        Effective page width: the page width minus its horizontal margins.
        """
        return self.w - self.l_margin - self.r_margin

    @property
    def eph(self):
        """
        Effective page height: the page height minus its vertical margins.
        """
        return self.h - self.t_margin - self.b_margin

    @property
    def pages_count(self):
        """
        Returns the total pages of the document.
        """
        return len(self.pages)

    def set_margin(self, margin):
        """
        Sets the document right, left, top & bottom margins to the same value.

        Args:
            margin (float): margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
        """
        self.set_margins(margin, margin)
        self.set_auto_page_break(self.auto_page_break, margin)

    def set_margins(self, left, top, right=-1):
        """
        Sets the document left, top & optionaly right margins to the same value.
        By default, they equal 1 cm.
        Also sets the current FPDF.y on the page to this minimum vertical position.

        Args:
            left (float): left margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
            top (float): top margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
            right (float): optional right margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
        """
        self.set_left_margin(left)
        if self.y < top or self.y == self.t_margin:
            self.y = top
        self.t_margin = top
        if right == -1:
            right = left
        self.r_margin = right

    def set_left_margin(self, margin):
        """
        Sets the document left margin.
        Also sets the current FPDF.x on the page to this minimum horizontal position.

        Args:
            margin (float): margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
        """
        if self.x < margin or self.x == self.l_margin:
            self.x = margin
        self.l_margin = margin

    def set_top_margin(self, margin):
        """
        Sets the document top margin.

        Args:
            margin (float): margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
        """
        self.t_margin = margin

    def set_right_margin(self, margin):
        """
        Sets the document right margin.

        Args:
            margin (float): margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
        """
        self.r_margin = margin

    def set_auto_page_break(self, auto, margin=0):
        """
        Set auto page break mode and triggering bottom margin.
        By default, the mode is on and the bottom margin is 2 cm.

        Args:
            auto (bool): enable or disable this mode
            margin (float): optional bottom margin (distance from the bottom of the page)
                in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
        """
        self.auto_page_break = auto
        self.b_margin = margin
        self.page_break_trigger = self.h - self.b_margin

    @property
    def default_page_dimensions(self):
        "Return a pair (width, height) in the unit specified to FPDF constructor"
        return (
            (self.dw_pt, self.dh_pt)
            if self.def_orientation == "P"
            else (self.dh_pt, self.dw_pt)
        )

    def _set_orientation(self, orientation, page_width_pt, page_height_pt):
        orientation = orientation.lower()
        if orientation in ("p", "portrait"):
            self.cur_orientation = "P"
            self.w_pt = page_width_pt
            self.h_pt = page_height_pt
        elif orientation in ("l", "landscape"):
            self.cur_orientation = "L"
            self.w_pt = page_height_pt
            self.h_pt = page_width_pt
        else:
            raise FPDFException(f"Incorrect orientation: {orientation}")
        self.w = self.w_pt / self.k
        self.h = self.h_pt / self.k

    def set_display_mode(self, zoom, layout="continuous"):
        """
        Defines the way the document is to be displayed by the viewer.

        It allows to set the zoom level: pages can be displayed entirely on screen,
        occupy the full width of the window, use the real size,
        be scaled by a specific zooming factor or use the viewer default (configured in its Preferences menu).

        The page layout can also be specified: single page at a time, continuous display, two columns or viewer default.

        Args:
            zoom: either "fullpage", "fullwidth", "real", "default",
                or a number indicating the zooming factor to use, interpreted as a percentage.
                The zoom level set by default is "default".
            layout (fpdf.enums.PageLayout, str): allowed layout aliases are "single", "continuous", "two" or "default",
                meaning to use the viewer default mode.
                The layout set by default is "continuous".
        """
        if zoom in ZOOM_CONFIGS or not isinstance(zoom, str):
            self.zoom_mode = zoom
        elif zoom != "default":
            raise FPDFException(f"Incorrect zoom display mode: {zoom}")
        self.page_layout = LAYOUT_ALIASES.get(layout, layout)

    @property
    def page_layout(self):
        return self._page_layout

    @page_layout.setter
    def page_layout(self, page_layout):
        self._page_layout = PageLayout.coerce(page_layout) if page_layout else None
        if self._page_layout in (PageLayout.TWO_PAGE_LEFT, PageLayout.TWO_PAGE_RIGHT):
            self._set_min_pdf_version("1.5")

    def set_compression(self, compress):
        """
        Activates or deactivates page compression.

        When activated, the internal representation of each page is compressed
        using the zlib/deflate method (FlateDecode), which leads to a compression ratio
        of about 2 for the resulting document.

        Page compression is enabled by default.

        Args:
            compress (bool): indicates if compression should be enabled
        """
        self.compress = compress

    def set_title(self, title):
        """
        Defines the title of the document.

        Args:
            title (str): the title
        """
        self.title = title

    def set_lang(self, lang):
        """
        A language identifier specifying the natural language for all text in the document
        except where overridden by language specifications for structure elements or marked content.
        A language identifier can either be the empty text string, to indicate that the language is unknown,
        or a Language-Tag as defined in RFC 3066, "Tags for the Identification of Languages".

        Args:
            lang (str): the document main language
        """
        self.lang = lang
        if lang:
            self._set_min_pdf_version("1.4")

    def set_subject(self, subject):
        """
        Defines the subject of the document.

        Args:
            subject (str): the document main subject
        """
        self.subject = subject

    def set_author(self, author):
        """
        Defines the author of the document.

        Args:
            author(str): the name of the author
        """
        self.author = author

    def set_keywords(self, keywords):
        """
        Associate keywords with the document

        Args:
            keywords (str): a space-separated list of words
        """
        self.keywords = keywords

    def set_creator(self, creator):
        """
        Defines the creator of the document.
        This is typically the name of the application that generates the PDF.

        Args:
            creator (str): name of the PDF creator
        """
        self.creator = creator

    def set_producer(self, producer):
        """Producer of document"""
        self.producer = producer

    def set_creation_date(self, date=None):
        """Sets Creation of Date time, or current time if None given."""
        if self._sign_key:
            raise FPDFException(
                ".set_creation_date() must always be called before .sign*() methods"
            )
        if not isinstance(date, datetime):
            raise TypeError(f"date should be a datetime but is a {type(date)}")
        if not date.tzinfo:
            date = date.astimezone()
        self.creation_date = date

    def set_xmp_metadata(self, xmp_metadata):
        if "<?xpacket" in xmp_metadata[:50]:
            raise ValueError(
                "fpdf2 already performs XMP metadata wrapping in a <?xpacket> tag"
            )
        self.xmp_metadata = xmp_metadata
        if xmp_metadata:
            self._set_min_pdf_version("1.4")

    def set_doc_option(self, opt, value):
        """
        Defines a document option.

        Args:
            opt (str): name of the option to set
            value (str) option value

        .. deprecated:: 2.4.0
            Simply set the `FPDF.core_fonts_encoding` property as a replacement.
        """
        warnings.warn(
            "set_doc_option() is deprecated. "
            "Simply set the `.core_fonts_encoding` property as a replacement.",
            DeprecationWarning,
            stacklevel=2,
        )
        if opt != "core_fonts_encoding":
            raise FPDFException(f'Unknown document option "{opt}"')
        self.core_fonts_encoding = value

    def set_image_filter(self, image_filter):
        """
        Args:
            image_filter (str): name of a the image filter to use
                when embedding images in the document, or "AUTO",
                meaning to use the best image filter given the images provided.
                Allowed values: `FlateDecode` (lossless zlib/deflate compression),
                `DCTDecode` (lossy compression with JPEG)
                and `JPXDecode` (lossy compression with JPEG2000).
        """
        if image_filter not in SUPPORTED_IMAGE_FILTERS:
            raise ValueError(
                f"'{image_filter}' is not a supported image filter"
                f" - Allowed values: {''.join(SUPPORTED_IMAGE_FILTERS)}"
            )
        self.image_filter = image_filter
        if image_filter == "JPXDecode":
            self._set_min_pdf_version("1.5")

    def alias_nb_pages(self, alias="{nb}"):
        """
        Defines an alias for the total number of pages.
        It will be substituted as the document is closed.

        This is useful to insert the number of pages of the document
        at a time when this number is not known by the program.

        This substitution can be disabled for performances reasons, by calling `alias_nb_pages(None)`.

        Args:
            alias (str): the alias. Defaults to "{nb}".

        Notes
        -----

        When using this feature with the `FPDF.cell` / `FPDF.multi_cell` methods,
        or the `.underline` attribute of `FPDF` class,
        the width of the text rendered will take into account the alias length,
        not the length of the "actual number of pages" string,
        which can causes slight positioning differences.
        """
        self.str_alias_nb_pages = alias

    def add_page(
        self, orientation="", format="", same=False, duration=0, transition=None
    ):
        """
        Adds a new page to the document.
        If a page is already present, the `FPDF.footer()` method is called first.
        Then the page  is added, the current position is set to the top-left corner,
        with respect to the left and top margins, and the `FPDF.header()` method is called.

        Args:
            orientation (str): "portrait" (can be abbreviated "P")
                or "landscape" (can be abbreviated "L"). Default to "portrait".
            format (str): "a3", "a4", "a5", "letter", "legal" or a tuple
                (width, height). Default to "a4".
            same (bool): indicates to use the same page format as the previous page.
                Default to False.
            duration (float): optional page’s display duration, i.e. the maximum length of time,
                in seconds, that the page is displayed in presentation mode,
                before the viewer application automatically advances to the next page.
                Can be configured globally through the `.page_duration` FPDF property.
                As of june 2021, onored by Adobe Acrobat reader, but ignored by Sumatra PDF reader.
            transition (Transition child class): optional visual transition to use when moving
                from another page to the given page during a presentation.
                Can be configured globally through the `.page_transition` FPDF property.
                As of june 2021, onored by Adobe Acrobat reader, but ignored by Sumatra PDF reader.
        """
        if self.buffer:
            raise FPDFException(
                "A page cannot be added on a closed document, after calling output()"
            )
        family = self.font_family
        style = f"{self.font_style}U" if self.underline else self.font_style
        size = self.font_size_pt
        lw = self.line_width
        dc = self.draw_color
        fc = self.fill_color
        tc = self.text_color
        stretching = self.font_stretching
        char_spacing = self.char_spacing

        if self.page > 0:
            # Page footer
            self.in_footer = True
            self.footer()
            self.in_footer = False

        # Start new page
        self._beginpage(
            orientation,
            format,
            same,
            duration or self.page_duration,
            transition or self.page_transition,
            new_page=not self._has_next_page(),
        )

        if self.page_background:
            if isinstance(self.page_background, tuple):
                self.set_fill_color(*self.page_background)
                self.rect(0, 0, self.w, self.h, style="F")
                self.set_fill_color(*(255 * v for v in fc.colors))
            else:
                self.image(self.page_background, 0, 0, self.w, self.h)

        self._out("2 J")  # Set line cap style to square
        self.line_width = lw  # Set line width
        self._out(f"{lw * self.k:.2f} w")

        # Set font
        if family:
            self.set_font(family, style, size)

        # Set colors
        self.draw_color = dc
        if dc != self.DEFAULT_DRAW_COLOR:
            self._out(dc.serialize().upper())
        self.fill_color = fc
        if fc != self.DEFAULT_FILL_COLOR:
            self._out(fc.serialize().lower())
        self.text_color = tc

        # BEGIN Page header
        self.header()

        if self.line_width != lw:  # Restore line width
            self.line_width = lw
            self._out(f"{lw * self.k:.2f} w")

        if family:
            self.set_font(family, style, size)  # Restore font

        if self.draw_color != dc:  # Restore colors
            self.draw_color = dc
            self._out(dc.serialize().upper())
        if self.fill_color != fc:
            self.fill_color = fc
            self._out(fc.serialize().lower())
        self.text_color = tc

        if stretching != 100:  # Restore stretching
            self.set_stretching(stretching)
        if char_spacing != 0:
            self.set_char_spacing(char_spacing)
        # END Page header

    def _beginpage(
        self, orientation, format, same, duration, transition, new_page=True
    ):
        self.page += 1
        if new_page:
            page = PDFPage(
                contents=bytearray(),
                duration=duration,
                transition=transition,
                index=self.page,
            )
            self.pages[self.page] = page
            if transition:
                self._set_min_pdf_version("1.5")
        else:
            page = self.pages[self.page]
        self.x = self.l_margin
        self.y = self.t_margin
        self.font_family = ""
        self.font_stretching = 100
        self.char_spacing = 0
        if same:
            if orientation or format:
                raise ValueError(
                    f"Inconsistent parameters: same={same} but orientation={orientation} format={format}"
                )
        else:
            # Set page format if provided, else use default value:
            page_width_pt, page_height_pt = (
                get_page_format(format, self.k) if format else (self.dw_pt, self.dh_pt)
            )
            self._set_orientation(
                orientation or self.def_orientation, page_width_pt, page_height_pt
            )
            self.page_break_trigger = self.h - self.b_margin
        page.set_dimensions(self.w_pt, self.h_pt)

    def header(self):
        """
        Header to be implemented in your own inherited class

        This is automatically called by `FPDF.add_page()`
        and should not be called directly by the user application.
        The default implementation performs nothing: you have to override this method
        in a subclass to implement your own rendering logic.
        """

    def footer(self):
        """
        Footer to be implemented in your own inherited class.

        This is automatically called by `FPDF.add_page()` and `FPDF.close()`
        and should not be called directly by the user application.
        The default implementation performs nothing: you have to override this method
        in a subclass to implement your own rendering logic.
        """

    def page_no(self):
        """Get the current page number"""
        return self.page

    def set_draw_color(self, r, g=-1, b=-1):
        """
        Defines the color used for all stroking operations (lines, rectangles and cell borders).
        It can be expressed in RGB components or grey scale.
        The method can be called before the first page is created and the value is retained from page to page.

        Args:
            r (int): if `g` and `b` are given, this indicates the red component.
                Else, this indicates the grey level. The value must be between 0 and 255.
            g (int): green component (between 0 and 255)
            b (int): blue component (between 0 and 255)
        """
        if (r == 0 and g == 0 and b == 0) or g == -1:
            self.draw_color = drawing.DeviceGray(r / 255)
        else:
            self.draw_color = drawing.DeviceRGB(r / 255, g / 255, b / 255)
        if self.page > 0:
            self._out(self.draw_color.serialize().upper())

    def set_fill_color(self, r, g=-1, b=-1):
        """
        Defines the color used for all filling operations (filled rectangles and cell backgrounds).
        It can be expressed in RGB components or grey scale.
        The method can be called before the first page is created and the value is retained from page to page.

        Args:
            r (int): if `g` and `b` are given, this indicates the red component.
                Else, this indicates the grey level. The value must be between 0 and 255.
            g (int): green component (between 0 and 255)
            b (int): blue component (between 0 and 255)
        """
        if (r == 0 and g == 0 and b == 0) or g == -1:
            self.fill_color = drawing.DeviceGray(r / 255)
        else:
            self.fill_color = drawing.DeviceRGB(r / 255, g / 255, b / 255)
        if self.page > 0:
            self._out(self.fill_color.serialize().lower())

    def set_text_color(self, r, g=-1, b=-1):
        """
        Defines the color used for text.
        It can be expressed in RGB components or grey scale.
        The method can be called before the first page is created and the value is retained from page to page.

        Args:
            r (int): if `g` and `b` are given, this indicates the red component.
                Else, this indicates the grey level. The value must be between 0 and 255.
            g (int): green component (between 0 and 255)
            b (int): blue component (between 0 and 255)
        """
        if (r == 0 and g == 0 and b == 0) or g == -1:
            self.text_color = drawing.DeviceGray(r / 255)
        else:
            self.text_color = drawing.DeviceRGB(r / 255, g / 255, b / 255)

    def get_string_width(self, s, normalized=False, markdown=False):
        """
        Returns the length of a string in user unit. A font must be selected.
        The value is calculated with stretching and spacing.

        Args:
            s (str): the string whose length is to be computed.
            normalized (bool): whether normalization needs to be performed on the input string.
            markdown (bool): indicates if basic markdown support is enabled
        """
        # normalized is parameter for internal use
        s = s if normalized else self.normalize_text(s)
        w = 0
        for frag in (
            self._markdown_parse(s)
            if markdown
            else (Fragment(s, self._get_current_graphics_state(), self.k),)
        ):
            w += frag.get_width()
        return w

    def set_line_width(self, width):
        """
        Defines the line width of all stroking operations (lines, rectangles and cell borders).
        By default, the value equals 0.2 mm.
        The method can be called before the first page is created and the value is retained from page to page.

        Args:
            width (float): the width in user unit
        """
        self.line_width = width
        if self.page > 0:
            self._out(f"{width * self.k:.2f} w")

    def set_page_background(self, background):
        """
        Sets a background color or image to be drawn every time `FPDF.add_page()` is called, or removes a previously set background.
        The method can be called before the first page is created and the value is retained from page to page.

        Args:
            background: either a string representing a file path or URL to an image,
                an io.BytesIO containg an image as bytes, an instance of `PIL.Image.Image`, drawing.DeviceRGB
                or a RGB tuple representing a color to fill the background with or `None` to remove the background
        """

        if isinstance(
            background, (str, io.BytesIO, Image, drawing.DeviceRGB, tuple, type(None))
        ):
            if isinstance(background, drawing.DeviceRGB):
                self.page_background = tuple(255 * v for v in background.colors)
            else:
                self.page_background = background
        else:
            raise TypeError(
                f"""background must be of type str, io.BytesIO, PIL.Image.Image, drawing.DeviceRGB, tuple or None
        got: {type(background)}"""
            )

    @contextmanager
    @check_page
    def drawing_context(self, debug_stream=None):
        """
        Create a context for drawing paths on the current page.

        If this context manager is called again inside of an active context, it will
        raise an exception, as base drawing contexts cannot be nested.

        Args:
            debug_stream (TextIO): print a pretty tree of all items to be rendered
                to the provided stream. To store the output in a string, use
                `io.StringIO`.
        """

        if self._current_draw_context is not None:
            raise FPDFException(
                "cannot create a drawing context while one is already open"
            )

        context = drawing.DrawingContext()
        self._current_draw_context = context
        try:
            yield context
        finally:
            self._current_draw_context = None

        starting_style = self._current_graphic_style()
        render_args = (
            self._drawing_graphics_state_registry,
            drawing.Point(self.x, self.y),
            self.k,
            self.h,
            starting_style,
        )

        if debug_stream:
            rendered = context.render_debug(*render_args, debug_stream)
        else:
            rendered = context.render(*render_args)

        self._out(rendered)
        # The drawing API makes use of features (notably transparency and blending modes) that were introduced in PDF 1.4:
        self._set_min_pdf_version("1.4")

    def _current_graphic_style(self):
        gs = drawing.GraphicsStyle()
        gs.allow_transparency = self.allow_images_transparency

        # This initial stroke_width is ignored when embedding SVGs,
        # as the value in SVGObject.convert_graphics() takes precedence,
        # so this probably creates an unnecessary PDF dict entry:
        gs.stroke_width = self.line_width

        if self.draw_color != self.DEFAULT_DRAW_COLOR:
            gs.stroke_color = self.draw_color
        if self.fill_color != self.DEFAULT_FILL_COLOR:
            gs.fill_color = self.fill_color

        dash_info = self.dash_pattern
        dash_pattern = (dash_info["dash"], dash_info["gap"])
        if (dash_pattern[0] == 0) or (dash_pattern[1] == 0):
            dash_pattern = None

        gs.stroke_dash_pattern = dash_pattern
        gs.stroke_dash_phase = dash_info["phase"]

        return gs

    @contextmanager
    def new_path(self, x=0, y=0, paint_rule=PathPaintRule.AUTO, debug_stream=None):
        """
        Create a path for appending lines and curves to.

        Args:
            x (float): Abscissa of the path starting point
            y (float): Ordinate of the path starting point
            paint_rule (PathPaintRule): Optional choice of how the path should
                be painted. The default (AUTO) automatically selects stroke/fill based
                on the path style settings.
            debug_stream (TextIO): print a pretty tree of all items to be rendered
                to the provided stream. To store the output in a string, use
                `io.StringIO`.

        """
        with self.drawing_context(debug_stream=debug_stream) as ctxt:
            path = drawing.PaintedPath(x=x, y=y)
            path.style.paint_rule = paint_rule
            yield path
            ctxt.add_item(path)

    def draw_path(self, path, debug_stream=None):
        """
        Add a pre-constructed path to the document.

        Args:
            path (drawing.PaintedPath): the path to be drawn.
            debug_stream (TextIO): print a pretty tree of all items to be rendered
                to the provided stream. To store the output in a string, use
                `io.StringIO`.
        """
        with self.drawing_context(debug_stream=debug_stream) as ctxt:
            ctxt.add_item(path)

    def set_dash_pattern(self, dash=0, gap=0, phase=0):
        """
        Set the current dash pattern for lines and curves.

        Args:
            dash (float >= 0):
                The length of the dashes in current units.

            gap (float >= 0):
                The length of the gaps between dashes in current units.
                If omitted, the dash length will be used.

            phase (float >= 0):
                Where in the sequence to start drawing.

        Omitting 'dash' (= 0) resets the pattern to a solid line.
        """
        if not (isinstance(dash, (int, float)) and dash >= 0):
            raise ValueError("Dash length must be zero or a positive number.")
        if not (isinstance(gap, (int, float)) and gap >= 0):
            raise ValueError("gap length must be zero or a positive number.")
        if not (isinstance(phase, (int, float)) and phase >= 0):
            raise ValueError("Phase must be zero or a positive number.")

        pattern = dict(dash=dash, gap=gap, phase=phase)

        if pattern != self.dash_pattern:
            self.dash_pattern = pattern

            if dash:
                if gap:
                    dstr = f"[{dash * self.k:.3f} {gap * self.k:.3f}] {phase *self.k:.3f} d"
                else:
                    dstr = f"[{dash * self.k:.3f}] {phase *self.k:.3f} d"
            else:
                dstr = "[] 0 d"

            self._out(dstr)

    @check_page
    def line(self, x1, y1, x2, y2):
        """
        Draw a line between two points.

        Args:
            x1 (float): Abscissa of first point
            y1 (float): Ordinate of first point
            x2 (float): Abscissa of second point
            y2 (float): Ordinate of second point
        """
        self._out(
            f"{x1 * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - y1) * self.k:.2f} m {x2 * self.k:.2f} "
            f"{(self.h - y2) * self.k:.2f} l S"
        )

    @check_page
    def polyline(self, point_list, fill=False, polygon=False, style=None):
        """
        Draws lines between two or more points.

        Args:
            point_list (list of tuples): List of Abscissa and Ordinate of
                                        segments that should be drawn
            fill (bool): [**DEPRECATED since v2.5.4**] Use `style="F"` or `style="DF"` instead
            polygon (bool): If true, close path before stroking, to fill the inside of the polyline
            style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:

            * `D` or None: draw border. This is the default value.
            * `F`: fill
            * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
        """
        if fill:
            warnings.warn(
                '"fill" parameter is deprecated, use style="F" or style="DF" instead',
                DeprecationWarning,
                stacklevel=5 if polygon else 3,
            )
        if fill and style is None:
            style = RenderStyle.DF
        else:
            style = RenderStyle.coerce(style)
            if fill and style == RenderStyle.D:
                raise ValueError(
                    f"Conflicting values provided: fill={fill} & style={style}"
                )
        operator = "m"
        for point in point_list:
            self._out(
                f"{point[0] * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - point[1]) * self.k:.2f} {operator}"
            )
            operator = "l"
        if polygon:
            self._out(" h")
        self._out(f" {style.operator}")

    @check_page
    def polygon(self, point_list, fill=False, style=None):
        """
        Outputs a polygon defined by three or more points.

        Args:
            point_list (list of tuples): List of coordinates defining the polygon to draw
            fill (bool): [**DEPRECATED since v2.5.4**] Use `style="F"` or `style="DF"` instead
            style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:

            * `D` or None: draw border. This is the default value.
            * `F`: fill
            * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
        """
        self.polyline(point_list, fill=fill, polygon=True, style=style)

    @check_page
    def dashed_line(self, x1, y1, x2, y2, dash_length=1, space_length=1):
        """
        Draw a dashed line between two points.

        Args:
            x1 (float): Abscissa of first point
            y1 (float): Ordinate of first point
            x2 (float): Abscissa of second point
            y2 (float): Ordinate of second point
            dash_length (float): Length of the dash
            space_length (float): Length of the space between 2 dashes

        .. deprecated:: 2.4.6
            Use `FPDF.set_dash_pattern()` and the normal drawing operations instead.
        """
        warnings.warn(
            "dashed_line() is deprecated, and will be removed in a future release. "
            "Use set_dash_pattern() and the normal drawing operations instead.",
            DeprecationWarning,
            stacklevel=3,
        )
        self.set_dash_pattern(dash_length, space_length)
        self.line(x1, y1, x2, y2)
        self.set_dash_pattern()

    @check_page
    def rect(self, x, y, w, h, style=None, round_corners=False, corner_radius=0):
        """
        Outputs a rectangle.
        It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

        Args:
            x (float): Abscissa of upper-left bounding box.
            y (float): Ordinate of upper-left bounding box.
            w (float): Width.
            h (float): Height.

            style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:

            * `D` or empty string: draw border. This is the default value.
            * `F`: fill
            * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill

            round_corners (tuple of str, tuple of fpdf.enums.Corner, bool): Optional draw a rectangle with round corners.
            Possible values are:

            *`TOP_LEFT`: a rectangle with round top left corner
            *`TOP_RIGHT`: a rectangle with round top right corner
            *`BOTTOM_LEFT`: a rectangle with round bottom left corner
            *`BOTTOM_RIGHT`: a rectangle with round bottom right corner
            *`True`: a rectangle with all round corners
            *`False`: a rectangle with no round corners

            corner_radius: Optional radius of the corners
        """

        style = RenderStyle.coerce(style)
        if round_corners is not False:
            self._draw_rounded_rect(x, y, w, h, style, round_corners, corner_radius)
        else:
            self._out(
                f"{x * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - y) * self.k:.2f} {w * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{-h * self.k:.2f} re {style.operator}"
            )

    def _draw_rounded_rect(self, x, y, w, h, style, round_corners, r):
        min = h
        if w < h:
            min = w

        if r == 0:
            r = min / 5

        if r >= min / 2:
            r /= min

        point_1 = point_8 = (x, y)
        point_2 = point_3 = (x + w, y)
        point_4 = point_5 = (x + w, y + h)
        point_6 = point_7 = (x, y + h)
        coor_x = [x, x + w, x, x + w]
        coor_y = [y, y, y + h, y + h]

        if round_corners is True:
            round_corners = [
                Corner.TOP_RIGHT.value,
                Corner.TOP_LEFT.value,
                Corner.BOTTOM_RIGHT.value,
                Corner.BOTTOM_LEFT.value,
            ]
        round_corners = tuple(Corner.coerce(rc) for rc in round_corners)

        if Corner.TOP_RIGHT in round_corners:
            self.arc(coor_x[0], coor_y[0], 2 * r, 180, 270, style=style)
            point_1 = (x + r, y)
            point_8 = (x, y + r)

        if Corner.TOP_LEFT in round_corners:
            self.arc(coor_x[1] - 2 * r, coor_y[1], 2 * r, 270, 0, style=style)
            point_2 = (x + w - r, y)
            point_3 = (x + w, y + r)

        if Corner.BOTTOM_LEFT in round_corners:
            self.arc(coor_x[3] - 2 * r, coor_y[3] - 2 * r, 2 * r, 0, 90, style=style)
            point_4 = (x + w, y + h - r)
            point_5 = (x + w - r, y + h)

        if Corner.BOTTOM_RIGHT in round_corners:
            self.arc(coor_x[2], coor_y[2] - 2 * r, 2 * r, 90, 180, style=style)
            point_6 = (x + r, y + h)
            point_7 = (x, y + h - r)

        if style.is_fill:

            self.polyline(
                [
                    point_1,
                    point_2,
                    point_3,
                    point_4,
                    point_5,
                    point_6,
                    point_7,
                    point_8,
                    point_1,
                ],
                style="F",
            )

        if style.is_draw:
            self.line(point_1[0], point_1[1], point_2[0], point_2[1])
            self.line(point_3[0], point_3[1], point_4[0], point_4[1])
            self.line(point_5[0], point_5[1], point_6[0], point_6[1])
            self.line(point_7[0], point_7[1], point_8[0], point_8[1])

    @check_page
    def ellipse(self, x, y, w, h, style=None):
        """
        Outputs an ellipse.
        It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

        Args:
            x (float): Abscissa of upper-left bounding box.
            y (float): Ordinate of upper-left bounding box.
            w (float): Width
            h (float): Height
            style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:

            * `D` or empty string: draw border. This is the default value.
            * `F`: fill
            * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
        """
        style = RenderStyle.coerce(style)
        self._draw_ellipse(x, y, w, h, style.operator)

    def _draw_ellipse(self, x, y, w, h, operator):
        cx = x + w / 2
        cy = y + h / 2
        rx = w / 2
        ry = h / 2

        lx = 4 / 3 * (math.sqrt(2) - 1) * rx
        ly = 4 / 3 * (math.sqrt(2) - 1) * ry

        self._out(
            (
                f"{(cx + rx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy) * self.k:.2f} m "
                f"{(cx + rx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy + ly) * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{(cx + lx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy + ry) * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{cx * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy + ry) * self.k:.2f} c"
            )
        )
        self._out(
            (
                f"{(cx - lx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy + ry) * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{(cx - rx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy + ly) * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{(cx - rx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy) * self.k:.2f} c"
            )
        )
        self._out(
            (
                f"{(cx - rx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy - ly) * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{(cx - lx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy - ry) * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{cx * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy - ry) * self.k:.2f} c"
            )
        )
        self._out(
            (
                f"{(cx + lx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy - ry) * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{(cx + rx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy - ly) * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{(cx + rx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy) * self.k:.2f} c {operator}"
            )
        )

    @check_page
    def circle(self, x, y, r, style=None):
        """
        Outputs a circle.
        It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

        Args:
            x (float): Abscissa of upper-left bounding box.
            y (float): Ordinate of upper-left bounding box.
            r (float): Radius of the circle.
            style (str): Style of rendering. Possible values are:

            * `D` or None: draw border. This is the default value.
            * `F`: fill
            * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
        """
        self.ellipse(x, y, r, r, style)

    @check_page
    def regular_polygon(self, x, y, numSides, polyWidth, rotateDegrees=0, style=None):
        """
        Outputs a regular polygon with n sides
        It can be rotated
        Style can also be applied (fill, border...)

        Args:
            x (float): Abscissa of upper-left bounding box.
            y (float): Ordinate of upper-left bounding box.
            numSides (int): Number of sides for polygon.
            polyWidth (float): Width of the polygon.
            rotateDegrees (float): Optional degree amount to rotate polygon.
            style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:

            * `D` or None: draw border. This is the default value.
            * `F`: fill
            * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
        """
        radius = polyWidth / 2
        centerX = x + radius
        centerY = y - radius
        # center point is (centerX, centerY)
        points = []
        for i in range(1, numSides + 1):
            point = centerX + radius * math.cos(
                math.radians((360 / numSides) * i) + math.radians(rotateDegrees)
            ), centerY + radius * math.sin(
                math.radians((360 / numSides) * i) + math.radians(rotateDegrees)
            )
            points.append(point)
        # creates list of touples containing cordinate points of vertices

        self.polygon(points, style=style)
        # passes points through polygon function

    @check_page
    def star(self, x, y, r_in, r_out, corners, rotate_degrees=0, style=None):
        """
        Outputs a regular star with n corners.
        It can be rotated.
        It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

        Args:
            x (float): Abscissa of star's centre.
            y (float): Ordinate of star's centre.
            r_in (float): radius of internal circle.
            r_out (float): radius of external circle.
            corners (int): number of star's corners.
            rotate_degrees (float): Optional degree amount to rotate star clockwise.

            style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:
            * `D`: draw border. This is the default value.
            * `F`: fill.
            * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill.
        """
        th = math.radians(rotate_degrees)
        point_list = []
        for i in range(0, (corners * 2) + 1):
            corner_x = x + (r_out if i % 2 == 0 else r_in) * math.sin(th)
            corner_y = y + (r_out if i % 2 == 0 else r_in) * math.cos(th)
            point_list.append((corner_x, corner_y))

            th += math.radians(180 / corners)

        self.polyline(point_list, polygon=True, style=style)

    @check_page
    def arc(
        self,
        x,
        y,
        a,
        start_angle,
        end_angle,
        b=None,
        inclination=0,
        clockwise=False,
        start_from_center=False,
        end_at_center=False,
        style=None,
    ):
        """
        Outputs an arc.
        It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

        Args:
            a (float): Semi-major axis diameter.
            b (float): Semi-minor axis diameter, if None, equals to a (default: None).
            start_angle (float): Start angle of the arc (in degrees).
            end_angle (float): End angle of the arc (in degrees).
            inclination (float): Inclination of the arc in respect of the x-axis (default: 0).
            clockwise (bool): Way of drawing the arc (True: clockwise, False: counterclockwise) (default: False).
            start_from_center (bool): Start drawing from the center of the circle (default: False).
            end_at_center (bool): End drawing at the center of the circle (default: False).
            style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Allowed values are:

            * `D` or None: draw border. This is the default value.
            * `F`: fill
            * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
        """
        style = RenderStyle.coerce(style)

        if b is None:
            b = a

        a /= 2
        b /= 2

        cx = x + a
        cy = y + b

        # Functions used only to construct other points of the bezier curve
        def deg_to_rad(deg):
            return deg * math.pi / 180

        def angle_to_param(angle):
            angle = deg_to_rad(angle % 360)
            eta = math.atan2(math.sin(angle) / b, math.cos(angle) / a)

            if eta < 0:
                eta += 2 * math.pi
            return eta

        theta = deg_to_rad(inclination)
        cos_theta = math.cos(theta)
        sin_theta = math.sin(theta)

        def evaluate(eta):
            a_cos_eta = a * math.cos(eta)
            b_sin_eta = b * math.sin(eta)

            return [
                cx + a_cos_eta * cos_theta - b_sin_eta * sin_theta,
                cy + a_cos_eta * sin_theta + b_sin_eta * cos_theta,
            ]

        def derivative_evaluate(eta):
            a_sin_eta = a * math.sin(eta)
            b_cos_eta = b * math.cos(eta)

            return [
                -a_sin_eta * cos_theta - b_cos_eta * sin_theta,
                -a_sin_eta * sin_theta + b_cos_eta * cos_theta,
            ]

        # Calculating start_eta and end_eta so that
        #   start_eta < end_eta   <= start_eta + 2*PI if counterclockwise
        #   end_eta   < start_eta <= end_eta + 2*PI   if clockwise
        start_eta = angle_to_param(start_angle)
        end_eta = angle_to_param(end_angle)

        if not clockwise and end_eta <= start_eta:
            end_eta += 2 * math.pi
        elif clockwise and end_eta >= start_eta:
            start_eta += 2 * math.pi

        start_point = evaluate(start_eta)

        # Move to the start point
        if start_from_center:
            self._out(f"{cx * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy) * self.k:.2f} m")
            self._out(
                f"{start_point[0] * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - start_point[1]) * self.k:.2f} l"
            )
        else:
            self._out(
                f"{start_point[0] * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - start_point[1]) * self.k:.2f} m"
            )

        # Number of curves to use, maximal segment angle is 2*PI/max_curves
        max_curves = 4
        n = min(
            max_curves, math.ceil(abs(end_eta - start_eta) / (2 * math.pi / max_curves))
        )
        d_eta = (end_eta - start_eta) / n

        alpha = math.sin(d_eta) * (math.sqrt(4 + 3 * math.tan(d_eta / 2) ** 2) - 1) / 3

        eta2 = start_eta
        p2 = evaluate(eta2)
        p2_prime = derivative_evaluate(eta2)

        for i in range(n):
            p1 = p2
            p1_prime = p2_prime

            eta2 += d_eta
            p2 = evaluate(eta2)
            p2_prime = derivative_evaluate(eta2)

            control_point_1 = [p1[0] + alpha * p1_prime[0], p1[1] + alpha * p1_prime[1]]
            control_point_2 = [p2[0] - alpha * p2_prime[0], p2[1] - alpha * p2_prime[1]]

            end = ""
            if i == n - 1 and not end_at_center:
                end = f" {style.operator}"

            self._out(
                (
                    f"{control_point_1[0] * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - control_point_1[1]) * self.k:.2f} "
                    f"{control_point_2[0] * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - control_point_2[1]) * self.k:.2f} "
                    f"{p2[0] * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - p2[1]) * self.k:.2f} c" + end
                )
            )

        if end_at_center:
            if start_from_center:
                self._out(f"h {style.operator}")
            else:
                self._out(
                    f"{cx * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy) * self.k:.2f} l {style.operator}"
                )

    def solid_arc(
        self,
        x,
        y,
        a,
        start_angle,
        end_angle,
        b=None,
        inclination=0,
        clockwise=False,
        style=None,
    ):
        """
        Outputs a solid arc. A solid arc combines an arc and a triangle to form a pie slice
        It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

        Args:
            x (float): Abscissa of upper-left bounding box.
            y (float): Ordinate of upper-left bounding box.
            a (float): Semi-major axis.
            b (float): Semi-minor axis, if None, equals to a (default: None).
            start_angle (float): Start angle of the arc (in degrees).
            end_angle (float): End angle of the arc (in degrees).
            inclination (float): Inclination of the arc in respect of the x-axis (default: 0).
            clockwise (bool): Way of drawing the arc (True: clockwise, False: counterclockwise) (default: False).
            style (str): Style of rendering. Possible values are:

            * `D` or None: draw border. This is the default value.
            * `F`: fill
            * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
        """
        self.arc(
            x,
            y,
            a,
            start_angle,
            end_angle,
            b,
            inclination,
            clockwise,
            True,
            True,
            style,
        )

    def add_font(self, family=None, style="", fname=None, uni="DEPRECATED"):
        """
        Imports a TrueType or OpenType font and makes it available
        for later calls to the `FPDF.set_font()` method.

        You will find more information on the "Unicode" documentation page.

        Args:
            family (str): optional name of the font family. Used as a reference for `FPDF.set_font()`.
                If not provided, use the base name of the `fname` font path, without extension.
            style (str): font style. "B" for bold, "I" for italic.
            fname (str): font file name. You can specify a relative or full path.
                If the file is not found, it will be searched in `FPDF_FONT_DIR`.
            uni (bool): [**DEPRECATED since 2.5.1**] unused
        """
        if not fname:
            raise ValueError('"fname" parameter is required')

        ext = splitext(str(fname))[1].lower()
        if ext not in (".otf", ".otc", ".ttf", ".ttc"):
            raise ValueError(
                f"Unsupported font file extension: {ext}."
                " add_font() used to accept .pkl file as input, but for security reasons"
                " this feature is deprecated since v2.5.1 and has been removed in v2.5.3."
            )

        if uni != "DEPRECATED":
            warnings.warn(
                '"uni" parameter is deprecated, unused and will soon be removed',
                DeprecationWarning,
                stacklevel=2,
            )

        style = "".join(sorted(style.upper()))
        if any(letter not in "BI" for letter in style):
            raise ValueError(
                f"Unknown style provided (only B & I letters are allowed): {style}"
            )

        for parent in (".", FPDF_FONT_DIR):
            if not parent:
                continue

            if (Path(parent) / fname).exists():
                font_file_path = Path(parent) / fname
                break
        else:
            raise FileNotFoundError(f"TTF Font file not found: {fname}")

        if family is None:
            family = font_file_path.stem

        fontkey = f"{family.lower()}{style}"
        # Check if font already added or one of the core fonts
        if fontkey in self.fonts or fontkey in self.core_fonts:
            warnings.warn(f"Core font or font already added '{fontkey}': doing nothing")
            return
        font = ttLib.TTFont(font_file_path)

        scale = 1000 / font["head"].unitsPerEm
        default_width = round(scale * font["hmtx"].metrics[".notdef"][0])

        try:
            cap_height = font["OS/2"].sCapHeight
        except AttributeError:
            cap_height = font["hhea"].ascent

        # entry for the PDF font descriptor specifying various characteristics of the font
        flags = FontDescriptorFlags.SYMBOLIC
        if font["post"].isFixedPitch:
            flags |= FontDescriptorFlags.FIXED_PITCH
        if font["post"].italicAngle != 0:
            flags |= FontDescriptorFlags.ITALIC
        if font["OS/2"].usWeightClass >= 600:
            flags |= FontDescriptorFlags.FORCE_BOLD

        desc = PDFFontDescriptor(
            ascent=round(font["hhea"].ascent * scale),
            descent=round(font["hhea"].descent * scale),
            cap_height=round(cap_height * scale),
            flags=flags,
            font_b_box=(
                f"[{font['head'].xMin * scale:.0f} {font['head'].yMin * scale:.0f}"
                f" {font['head'].xMax * scale:.0f} {font['head'].yMax * scale:.0f}]"
            ),
            italic_angle=int(font["post"].italicAngle),
            stem_v=round(50 + int(pow((font["OS/2"].usWeightClass / 65), 2))),
            missing_width=default_width,
        )

        # a map unicode_char -> char_width
        char_widths = defaultdict(lambda: default_width)
        for char in font.getBestCmap().keys():
            # take glyph associated to char
            glyph = font.getBestCmap()[char]

            # take width associated to glyph
            w = font["hmtx"].metrics[glyph][0]

            # probably this check could be deleted
            if w == 65535:
                w = 0

            char_widths[char] = round(scale * w + 0.001)  # ROUND_HALF_UP

        # include numbers in the subset! (if alias present)
        # ensure that alias is mapped 1-by-1 additionally (must be replaceable)
        sbarr = "\x00 "
        if self.str_alias_nb_pages:
            sbarr += "0123456789"
            sbarr += self.str_alias_nb_pages

        self.fonts[fontkey] = {
            "i": len(self.fonts) + 1,
            "type": "TTF",
            "name": re.sub("[ ()]", "", font["name"].getBestFullName()),
            "desc": desc,
            "up": round(font["post"].underlinePosition * scale),
            "ut": round(font["post"].underlineThickness * scale),
            "cw": char_widths,
            "ttffile": font_file_path,
            "fontkey": fontkey,
            "subset": SubsetMap(map(ord, sbarr)),
        }

    def set_font(self, family=None, style="", size=0):
        """
        Sets the font used to print character strings.
        It is mandatory to call this method at least once before printing text.

        Default encoding is not specified, but all text writing methods accept only
        unicode for external fonts and one byte encoding for standard.

        Standard fonts use `Latin-1` encoding by default, but Windows
        encoding `cp1252` (Western Europe) can be used with
        `self.core_fonts_encoding = encoding`.

        The font specified is retained from page to page.
        The method can be called before the first page is created.

        Args:
            family (str): name of a font added with `FPDF.add_font`,
                or name of one of the 14 standard "PostScript" fonts:
                Courier (fixed-width), Helvetica (sans serif), Times (serif),
                Symbol (symbolic) or ZapfDingbats (symbolic)
                If an empty string is provided, the current family is retained.
            style (str): empty string (by default) or a combination
                of one or several letters among B (bold), I (italic) and U (underline).
                Bold and italic styles do not apply to Symbol and ZapfDingbats fonts.
            size (float): in points. The default value is the current size.
        """
        if not family:
            family = self.font_family

        family = family.lower()
        style = "".join(sorted(style.upper()))
        if any(letter not in "BIU" for letter in style):
            raise ValueError(
                f"Unknown style provided (only B/I/U letters are allowed): {style}"
            )
        if "U" in style:
            self.underline = True
            style = style.replace("U", "")
        else:
            self.underline = False

        if family in self.font_aliases and family + style not in self.fonts:
            warnings.warn(
                f"Substituting font {family} by core font "
                f"{self.font_aliases[family]}"
            )
            family = self.font_aliases[family]
        elif family in ("symbol", "zapfdingbats") and style:
            warnings.warn(
                f"Built-in font {family} only has a single 'style' and can't be bold "
                f"or italic"
            )
            style = ""

        if size == 0:
            size = self.font_size_pt

        # Test if font is already selected
        if (
            self.font_family == family
            and self.font_style == style
            and isclose(self.font_size_pt, size)
        ):
            return

        # Test if used for the first time
        fontkey = family + style
        if fontkey not in self.fonts:
            if fontkey not in self.core_fonts:
                raise FPDFException(
                    f"Undefined font: {fontkey} - "
                    f"Use built-in fonts or FPDF.add_font() beforehand"
                )
            # If it's one of the core fonts, add it to self.fonts
            self.fonts[fontkey] = {
                "i": len(self.fonts) + 1,
                "type": "core",
                "name": self.core_fonts[fontkey],
                "up": -100,
                "ut": 50,
                "cw": fpdf_charwidths[fontkey],
                "fontkey": fontkey,
            }

        # Select it
        self.font_family = family
        self.font_style = style
        self.font_size_pt = size
        self.current_font = self.fonts[fontkey]
        if self.page > 0:
            self._out(f"BT /F{self.current_font['i']} {self.font_size_pt:.2f} Tf ET")

    def set_font_size(self, size):
        """
        Configure the font size in points

        Args:
            size (float): font size in points
        """
        if isclose(self.font_size_pt, size):
            return
        self.font_size_pt = size
        if self.page > 0:
            if not self.current_font:
                raise FPDFException(
                    "Cannot set font size: a font must be selected first"
                )
            self._out(f"BT /F{self.current_font['i']} {self.font_size_pt:.2f} Tf ET")

    def set_char_spacing(self, spacing):
        """
        Sets horizontal character spacing.
        A positive value increases the space between characters, a negative value
        reduces it (which may result in glyph overlap).
        By default, no spacing is set (which is equivalent to a value of 0).

        Args:
            spacing (float): horizontal spacing in document units
        """
        if self.char_spacing == spacing:
            return
        self.char_spacing = spacing
        if self.page > 0:
            self._out(f"BT {spacing:.2f} Tc ET")

    def set_stretching(self, stretching):
        """
        Sets horizontal font stretching.
        By default, no stretching is set (which is equivalent to a value of 100).

        Args:
            stretching (float): horizontal stretching (scaling) in percents.
        """
        if self.font_stretching == stretching:
            return
        self.font_stretching = stretching
        if self.page > 0:
            self._out(f"BT {stretching:.2f} Tz ET")

    def add_link(self, y=0, x=0, page=-1, zoom="null"):
        """
        Creates a new internal link and returns its identifier.
        An internal link is a clickable area which directs to another place within the document.

        The identifier can then be passed to the `FPDF.cell()`, `FPDF.write()`, `FPDF.image()`
        or `FPDF.link()` methods.

        Args:
            y (float): optional ordinate of target position.
                The default value is 0 (top of page).
            x (float): optional abscissa of target position.
                The default value is 0 (top of page).
            page (int): optional number of target page.
                -1 indicates the current page, which is the default value.
            zoom (float): optional new zoom level after following the link.
                Currently ignored by Sumatra PDF Reader, but observed by Adobe Acrobat reader.
        """
        link = DestinationXYZ(
            self.page if page == -1 else page,
            top=self.h_pt - y * self.k,
            left=x * self.k,
            zoom=zoom,
        )
        link_index = len(self.links) + 1
        self.links[link_index] = link
        return link_index

    def set_link(self, link, y=0, x=0, page=-1, zoom="null"):
        """
        Defines the page and position a link points to.

        Args:
            link (int): a link identifier returned by `FPDF.add_link()`.
            y (float): optional ordinate of target position.
                The default value is 0 (top of page).
            x (float): optional abscissa of target position.
                The default value is 0 (top of page).
            page (int): optional number of target page.
                -1 indicates the current page, which is the default value.
            zoom (float): optional new zoom level after following the link.
                Currently ignored by Sumatra PDF Reader, but observed by Adobe Acrobat reader.
        """
        self.links[link] = DestinationXYZ(
            self.page if page == -1 else page,
            top=self.h_pt - y * self.k,
            left=x * self.k,
            zoom=zoom,
        )

    @check_page
    def link(self, x, y, w, h, link, alt_text=None, border_width=0):
        """
        Puts a link annotation on a rectangular area of the page.
        Text or image links are generally put via `FPDF.cell`,
        `FPDF.write` or `FPDF.image`,
        but this method can be useful for instance to define a clickable area inside an image.

        Args:
            x (float): horizontal position (from the left) to the left side of the link rectangle
            y (float): vertical position (from the top) to the bottom side of the link rectangle
            w (float): width of the link rectangle
            h (float): height of the link rectangle
            link: either an URL or an integer returned by `FPDF.add_link`, defining an internal link to a page
            alt_text (str): optional textual description of the link, for accessibility purposes
            border_width (int): thickness of an optional black border surrounding the link.
                Not all PDF readers honor this: Acrobat renders it but not Sumatra.
        """
        action, dest = None, None
        if link:
            if isinstance(link, str):
                action = URIAction(link)
            else:  # Dest type ending of annotation entry
                assert (
                    link in self.links
                ), f"Link with an invalid index: {link} (doc #links={len(self.links)})"
                dest = self.links[link]
                if not dest.page_number:
                    raise ValueError(
                        f"Cannot insert link {link} with no page number assigned"
                    )
        link_annot = AnnotationDict(
            "Link",
            x=x * self.k,
            y=self.h_pt - y * self.k,
            width=w * self.k,
            height=h * self.k,
            action=action,
            dest=dest,
            border_width=border_width,
        )
        self.pages[self.page].annots.append(link_annot)
        if alt_text is not None:
            # Note: the spec indicates that a /StructParent could be added **inside* this /Annot,
            # but tests with Adobe Acrobat Reader reveal that the page /StructParents inserted below
            # is enough to link the marked content in the hierarchy tree with this annotation link.
            self._add_marked_content(struct_type="/Link", alt_text=alt_text)
        return link_annot

    def embed_file(
        self,
        file_path=None,
        bytes=None,
        basename=None,
        modification_date=None,
        **kwargs,
    ):
        """
        Embed a file into the PDF document

        Args:
            file_path (str or Path): filesystem path to the existing file to embed
            bytes (bytes): optional, as an alternative to file_path, bytes content of the file to embed
            basename (str): optional, required if bytes is provided, file base name
            creation_date (datetime): date and time when the file was created
            modification_date (datetime): date and time when the file was last modified
            desc (str): optional description of the file
            compress (bool): enabled zlib compression of the file - False by default
            checksum (bool): insert a MD5 checksum of the file content - False by default

        Returns: a PDFEmbeddedFile instance, with a .basename string attribute representing the internal file name
        """
        if file_path:
            if bytes:
                raise ValueError("'bytes' cannot be provided with 'file_path'")
            if basename:
                raise ValueError("'basename' cannot be provided with 'file_path'")
            file_path = Path(file_path)
            with file_path.open("rb") as input_file:
                bytes = input_file.read()
            basename = file_path.name
            stats = file_path.stat()
            if modification_date is None:
                modification_date = datetime.fromtimestamp(stats.st_mtime).astimezone()
        else:
            if not bytes:
                raise ValueError("'bytes' is required if 'file_path' is not provided")
            if not basename:
                raise ValueError(
                    "'basename' is required if 'file_path' is not provided"
                )
        already_embedded_basenames = set(
            file.basename() for file in self.embedded_files
        )
        if basename in already_embedded_basenames:
            raise ValueError(f"{basename} has already been embedded in this file")
        embedded_file = PDFEmbeddedFile(
            basename=basename,
            contents=bytes,
            modification_date=modification_date,
            **kwargs,
        )
        self.embedded_files.append(embedded_file)
        self._set_min_pdf_version("1.4")
        return embedded_file

    @check_page
    def file_attachment_annotation(
        self, file_path, x, y, w=1, h=1, name=None, flags=DEFAULT_ANNOT_FLAGS, **kwargs
    ):
        """
        Puts a file attachment annotation on a rectangular area of the page.

        Args:
            file_path (str or Path): filesystem path to the existing file to embed
            x (float): horizontal position (from the left) to the left side of the link rectangle
            y (float): vertical position (from the top) to the bottom side of the link rectangle
            w (float): optional width of the link rectangle
            h (float): optional height of the link rectangle
            name (fpdf.enums.FileAttachmentAnnotationName, str): optional icon that shall be used in displaying the annotation
            flags (Tuple[fpdf.enums.AnnotationFlag], Tuple[str]): optional list of flags defining annotation properties
            bytes (bytes): optional, as an alternative to file_path, bytes content of the file to embed
            basename (str): optional, required if bytes is provided, file base name
            creation_date (datetime): date and time when the file was created
            modification_date (datetime): date and time when the file was last modified
            desc (str): optional description of the file
            compress (bool): enabled zlib compression of the file - False by default
            checksum (bool): insert a MD5 checksum of the file content - False by default
        """
        embedded_file = self.embed_file(file_path, **kwargs)
        embedded_file.set_globally_enclosed(False)
        annotation = AnnotationDict(
            "FileAttachment",
            x * self.k,
            self.h_pt - y * self.k,
            w * self.k,
            h * self.k,
            file_spec=embedded_file.file_spec(),
            name=FileAttachmentAnnotationName.coerce(name) if name else None,
            flags=tuple(AnnotationFlag.coerce(flag) for flag in flags),
        )
        self.pages[self.page].annots.append(annotation)
        return annotation

    @check_page
    def text_annotation(
        self, x, y, text, w=1, h=1, name=None, flags=DEFAULT_ANNOT_FLAGS
    ):
        """
        Puts a text annotation on a rectangular area of the page.

        Args:
            x (float): horizontal position (from the left) to the left side of the link rectangle
            y (float): vertical position (from the top) to the bottom side of the link rectangle
            text (str): text to display
            w (float): optional width of the link rectangle
            h (float): optional height of the link rectangle
            name (fpdf.enums.AnnotationName, str): optional icon that shall be used in displaying the annotation
            flags (Tuple[fpdf.enums.AnnotationFlag], Tuple[str]): optional list of flags defining annotation properties
        """
        annotation = AnnotationDict(
            "Text",
            x * self.k,
            self.h_pt - y * self.k,
            w * self.k,
            h * self.k,
            contents=text,
            name=AnnotationName.coerce(name) if name else None,
            flags=tuple(AnnotationFlag.coerce(flag) for flag in flags),
        )
        self.pages[self.page].annots.append(annotation)
        return annotation

    @check_page
    def add_action(self, action, x, y, w, h):
        """
        Puts an Action annotation on a rectangular area of the page.

        Args:
            action (fpdf.actions.Action): the action to add
            x (float): horizontal position (from the left) to the left side of the link rectangle
            y (float): vertical position (from the top) to the bottom side of the link rectangle
            w (float): width of the link rectangle
            h (float): height of the link rectangle
        """
        annotation = AnnotationDict(
            "Action",
            x * self.k,
            self.h_pt - y * self.k,
            w * self.k,
            h * self.k,
            action=action,
        )
        self.pages[self.page].annots.append(annotation)
        return annotation

    @contextmanager
    def highlight(
        self, text, title="", type="Highlight", color=(1, 1, 0), modification_time=None
    ):
        """
        Context manager that adds a single highlight annotation based on the text lines inserted
        inside its indented block.

        Args:
            text (str): text of the annotation
            title (str): the text label that shall be displayed in the title bar of the annotation’s
                pop-up window when open and active. This entry shall identify the user who added the annotation.
            type (fpdf.enums.TextMarkupType, str): "Highlight", "Underline", "Squiggly" or "StrikeOut".
            color (tuple): a tuple of numbers in the range 0.0 to 1.0, representing a colour used for
                the title bar of the annotation’s pop-up window. Defaults to yellow.
            modification_time (datetime): date and time when the annotation was most recently modified
        """
        if self._record_text_quad_points:
            raise FPDFException("highlight() cannot be nested")
        self._record_text_quad_points = True
        yield
        for page, quad_points in self._text_quad_points.items():
            self.add_text_markup_annotation(
                type,
                text,
                quad_points=quad_points,
                title=title,
                color=color,
                modification_time=modification_time,
                page=page,
            )
        self._text_quad_points = defaultdict(list)
        self._record_text_quad_points = False

    add_highlight = highlight  # For backward compatibilty

    @check_page
    def add_text_markup_annotation(
        self,
        type,
        text,
        quad_points,
        title="",
        color=(1, 1, 0),
        modification_time=None,
        page=None,
    ):
        """
        Adds a text markup annotation on some quadrilateral areas of the page.

        Args:
            type (fpdf.enums.TextMarkupType, str): "Highlight", "Underline", "Squiggly" or "StrikeOut"
            text (str): text of the annotation
            quad_points (tuple): array of 8 × n numbers specifying the coordinates of n quadrilaterals
                in default user space that comprise the region in which the link should be activated.
                The coordinates for each quadrilateral are given in the order: x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 x4 y4
                specifying the four vertices of the quadrilateral in counterclockwise order
            title (str): the text label that shall be displayed in the title bar of the annotation’s
                pop-up window when open and active. This entry shall identify the user who added the annotation.
            color (tuple): a tuple of numbers in the range 0.0 to 1.0, representing a colour used for
                the title bar of the annotation’s pop-up window. Defaults to yellow.
            modification_time (datetime): date and time when the annotation was most recently modified
            page (int): index of the page where this annotation is added
        """
        self._set_min_pdf_version("1.6")
        type = TextMarkupType.coerce(type).value
        if modification_time is None:
            modification_time = self.creation_date
        if page is None:
            page = self.page
        x_min = min(quad_points[0::2])
        y_min = min(quad_points[1::2])
        x_max = max(quad_points[0::2])
        y_max = max(quad_points[1::2])
        annotation = AnnotationDict(
            type,
            contents=text,
            x=y_min,
            y=y_max,
            width=x_max - x_min,
            height=y_max - y_min,
            color=color,
            modification_time=modification_time,
            title=title,
            quad_points=quad_points,
        )
        self.pages[page].annots.append(annotation)
        return annotation

    @check_page
    def ink_annotation(
        self, coords, contents="", title="", color=(1, 1, 0), border_width=1
    ):
        """
        Adds add an ink annotation on the page.

        Args:
            coords (tuple): an iterable of coordinates (pairs of numbers) defining a path
            contents (str): textual description
            title (str): the text label that shall be displayed in the title bar of the annotation’s
                pop-up window when open and active. This entry shall identify the user who added the annotation.
            color (tuple): a tuple of numbers in the range 0.0 to 1.0, representing a colour used for
                the title bar of the annotation’s pop-up window. Defaults to yellow.
            border_width (int): thickness of the path stroke.
        """
        ink_list = sum(((x * self.k, (self.h - y) * self.k) for (x, y) in coords), ())
        x_min = min(ink_list[0::2])
        y_min = min(ink_list[1::2])
        x_max = max(ink_list[0::2])
        y_max = max(ink_list[1::2])
        annotation = AnnotationDict(
            "Ink",
            x=y_min,
            y=y_max,
            width=x_max - x_min,
            height=y_max - y_min,
            ink_list=ink_list,
            color=color,
            border_width=border_width,
            contents=contents,
            title=title,
        )
        self.pages[self.page].annots.append(annotation)
        return annotation

    @check_page
    def text(self, x, y, txt=""):
        """
        Prints a character string. The origin is on the left of the first character,
        on the baseline. This method allows placing a string precisely on the page,
        but it is usually easier to use the `FPDF.cell()`, `FPDF.multi_cell() or `FPDF.write()` methods.

        Args:
            x (float): abscissa of the origin
            y (float): ordinate of the origin
            txt (str): string to print
        """
        if not self.font_family:
            raise FPDFException("No font set, you need to call set_font() beforehand")
        txt = self.normalize_text(txt)
        if self.is_ttf_font:
            txt_mapped = ""
            for char in txt:
                uni = ord(char)
                # Instead of adding the actual character to the stream its code is
                # mapped to a position in the font's subset
                txt_mapped += chr(self.current_font["subset"].pick(uni))
            txt2 = escape_parens(txt_mapped.encode("utf-16-be").decode("latin-1"))
        else:
            txt2 = escape_parens(txt)
        sl = [f"BT {x * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - y) * self.k:.2f} Td"]
        if self.text_mode != TextMode.FILL:
            sl.append(f" {self.text_mode} Tr {self.line_width:.2f} w")
        sl.append(f"({txt2}) Tj ET")
        if (self.underline and txt != "") or self._record_text_quad_points:
            w = self.get_string_width(txt, normalized=True, markdown=False)
            if self.underline and txt != "":
                sl.append(self._do_underline(x, y, w))
            if self._record_text_quad_points:
                h = self.font_size
                y -= 0.8 * h  # same coefficient as in _render_styled_text_line()
                self._add_quad_points(x, y, w, h)
        attr_l = []
        if self.fill_color != self.text_color:
            attr_l.append(f"{self.text_color.serialize().lower()}")
        if attr_l:
            sl = ["q"] + attr_l + sl + ["Q"]
        self._out(" ".join(sl))

    @check_page
    def rotate(self, angle, x=None, y=None):
        """
        .. deprecated:: 2.1.0
            Use `FPDF.rotation()` instead.
        """
        warnings.warn(
            "rotate() can produces malformed PDFs and is deprecated. "
            "Use the rotation() context manager instead.",
            DeprecationWarning,
            stacklevel=3,
        )
        if x is None:
            x = self.x
        if y is None:
            y = self.y

        if self._angle != 0:
            self._out("Q")
        self._angle = angle
        if angle != 0:
            angle *= math.pi / 180
            c = math.cos(angle)
            s = math.sin(angle)
            cx = x * self.k
            cy = (self.h - y) * self.k
            s = (
                f"q {c:.5F} {s:.5F} {-s:.5F} {c:.5F} {cx:.2F} {cy:.2F} cm "
                f"1 0 0 1 {-cx:.2F} {-cy:.2F} cm"
            )
            self._out(s)

    @check_page
    @contextmanager
    def rotation(self, angle, x=None, y=None):
        """
        This method allows to perform a rotation around a given center.
        It must be used as a context-manager using `with`:

            with rotation(angle=90, x=x, y=y):
                pdf.something()

        The rotation affects all elements which are printed inside the indented
        context (with the exception of clickable areas).

        Args:
            angle (float): angle in degrees
            x (float): abscissa of the center of the rotation
            y (float): ordinate of the center of the rotation

        Notes
        -----

        Only the rendering is altered. The `FPDF.get_x()` and `FPDF.get_y()` methods are
        not affected, nor the automatic page break mechanism.
        The rotation also establishes a local graphics state, so that any
        graphics state settings changed within will not affect the operations
        invoked after it has finished.
        """
        if x is None:
            x = self.x
        if y is None:
            y = self.y
        angle *= math.pi / 180
        c, s = math.cos(angle), math.sin(angle)
        cx, cy = x * self.k, (self.h - y) * self.k
        with self.local_context():
            self._out(
                f"{c:.5F} {s:.5F} {-s:.5F} {c:.5F} {cx:.2F} {cy:.2F} cm "
                f"1 0 0 1 {-cx:.2F} {-cy:.2F} cm"
            )
            yield

    @check_page
    @contextmanager
    def skew(self, ax=0, ay=0, x=None, y=None):
        """
        This method allows to perform a skew transformation originating from a given center.
        It must be used as a context-manager using `with`:

            with skew(ax=15, ay=15, x=x, y=y):
                pdf.something()

        The skew transformation affects all elements which are printed inside the indented
        context (with the exception of clickable areas).

        Args:
            ax (float): angle of skew in the horizontal direction in degrees
            ay (float): angle of skew in the vertical direction in degrees
            x (float): abscissa of the center of the skew transformation
            y (float): ordinate of the center of the skew transformation
        """
        lim_val = 2**32
        if x is None:
            x = self.x
        if y is None:
            y = self.y
        ax = max(min(math.tan(ax * (math.pi / 180)), lim_val), -lim_val)
        ay = max(min(math.tan(ay * (math.pi / 180)), lim_val), -lim_val)
        cx, cy = x * self.k, (self.h - y) * self.k
        with self.local_context():
            self._out(
                f"1 {ay:.5f} {ax:.5f} 1 {cx:.2f} {cy:.2f} cm "
                f"1 0 0 1 -{cx:.2f} -{cy:.2f} cm"
            )
            yield

    @check_page
    @contextmanager
    def local_context(
        self,
        font_family=None,
        font_style=None,
        font_size=None,
        line_width=None,
        draw_color=None,
        fill_color=None,
        text_color=None,
        dash_pattern=None,
        **kwargs,
    ):
        """
        Creates a local graphics state, which won't affect the surrounding code.
        This method must be used as a context manager using `with`:

            with pdf.local_context():
                set_some_state()
                draw_some_stuff()

        The affected settings are those controlled by GraphicsStateMixin and drawing.GraphicsStyle:
            allow_transparency
            auto_close
            blend_mode
            dash_pattern
            draw_color
            fill_color
            fill_opacity
            font_family
            font_size
            font_style
            font_stretching
            intersection_rule
            line_width
            paint_rule
            stroke_cap_style
            stroke_join_style
            stroke_miter_limit
            stroke_opacity
            text_color
            text_mode
            underline
            char_vpos

        Args:
            **kwargs: key-values settings to set at the beggining of this context.
        """
        if self._in_unbreakable:
            raise FPDFException(
                "cannot create a local context inside an unbreakable() code block"
            )
        self._push_local_stack()
        gs = None
        for key, value in kwargs.items():
            if key in (
                "stroke_color",
                "stroke_dash_phase",
                "stroke_dash_pattern",
                "stroke_width",
            ):
                raise ValueError(
                    f"Unsupported setting: {key} - This can be controlled through dash_pattern / draw_color / line_width"
                )
            if key in drawing.GraphicsStyle.MERGE_PROPERTIES:
                if gs is None:
                    gs = drawing.GraphicsStyle()
                setattr(gs, key, value)
                if key == "blend_mode":
                    self._set_min_pdf_version("1.4")
            elif key in ("font_stretching", "text_mode", "underline", "char_vpos"):
                setattr(self, key, value)
            else:
                raise ValueError(f"Unsupported setting: {key}")
        if gs:
            gs_name = self._drawing_graphics_state_registry.register_style(gs)
            self._out(f"q /{gs_name} gs")
        else:
            self._out("q")
        # All the following calls to .set*() methods invoke .out() and write to the stream buffer:
        if font_family is not None or font_style is not None or font_size is not None:
            self.set_font(
                font_family or self.font_family,
                font_style or self.font_style,
                font_size or self.font_size_pt,
            )
        if line_width is not None:
            self.set_line_width(line_width)
        if draw_color is not None:
            if isinstance(draw_color, Sequence):
                self.set_draw_color(*draw_color)
            else:
                self.set_draw_color(draw_color)
        if fill_color is not None:
            if isinstance(fill_color, Sequence):
                self.set_fill_color(*fill_color)
            else:
                self.set_fill_color(fill_color)
        if text_color is not None:
            if isinstance(text_color, Sequence):
                self.set_text_color(*text_color)
            else:
                self.set_text_color(text_color)
        if dash_pattern is not None:
            self.set_dash_pattern(**dash_pattern)
        yield
        self._out("Q")
        self._pop_local_stack()

    @property
    def accept_page_break(self):
        """
        Whenever a page break condition is met, this method is called,
        and the break is issued or not depending on the returned value.

        The default implementation returns a value according to the mode selected by `FPDF.set_auto_page_break()`.
        This method is called automatically and should not be called directly by the application.
        """
        return self.auto_page_break

    @check_page
    def cell(
        self,
        w=None,
        h=None,
        txt="",
        border=0,
        ln="DEPRECATED",
        align=Align.L,
        fill=False,
        link="",
        center="DEPRECATED",
        markdown=False,
        new_x=XPos.RIGHT,
        new_y=YPos.TOP,
    ):
        """
        Prints a cell (rectangular area) with optional borders, background color and
        character string. The upper-left corner of the cell corresponds to the current
        position. The text can be aligned or centered. After the call, the current
        position moves to the selected `new_x`/`new_y` position. It is possible to put a link
        on the text.

        If automatic page breaking is enabled and the cell goes beyond the limit, a
        page break is performed before outputting.

        Args:
            w (float): Cell width. Default value: None, meaning to fit text width.
                If 0, the cell extends up to the right margin.
            h (float): Cell height. Default value: None, meaning an height equal
                to the current font size.
            txt (str): String to print. Default value: empty string.
            border: Indicates if borders must be drawn around the cell.
                The value can be either a number (`0`: no border ; `1`: frame)
                or a string containing some or all of the following characters
                (in any order):
                `L`: left ; `T`: top ; `R`: right ; `B`: bottom. Default value: 0.
            new_x (fpdf.enums.XPos, str): New current position in x after the call. Default: RIGHT
            new_y (fpdf.enums.YPos, str): New current position in y after the call. Default: TOP
            ln (int): **DEPRECATED since 2.5.1**: Use `new_x` and `new_y` instead.
            align (fpdf.enums.Align, str): Allows to center or align the text inside the cell.
                Possible values are: `L` or empty string: left align (default value) ;
                `C`: center; `X`: center around current x; `R`: right align
            fill (bool): Indicates if the cell background must be painted (`True`)
                or transparent (`False`). Default value: False.
            link (str): optional link to add on the cell, internal
                (identifier returned by `FPDF.add_link`) or external URL.
            center (bool): **DEPRECATED** since 2.5.1:
                Use align="C" or align="X" instead.
            markdown (bool): enable minimal markdown-like markup to render part
                of text as bold / italics / underlined. Default to False.

        Returns: a boolean indicating if page break was triggered
        """
        if not self.font_family:
            raise FPDFException("No font set, you need to call set_font() beforehand")
        if isinstance(w, str) or isinstance(h, str):
            raise ValueError(
                "Parameter 'w' and 'h' must be numbers, not strings."
                " You can omit them by passing string content with txt="
            )
        if isinstance(border, int) and border not in (0, 1):
            warnings.warn(
                'Integer values for "border" parameter other than 1 are currently '
                "ignored"
            )
            border = 1
        new_x = XPos.coerce(new_x)
        new_y = YPos.coerce(new_y)
        if center == "DEPRECATED":
            center = False
        else:
            warnings.warn(
                'The parameter "center" is deprecated. Use align="C" or align="X" instead.',
                DeprecationWarning,
                stacklevel=3,
            )
        if ln != "DEPRECATED":
            # For backwards compatibility, if "ln" is used we overwrite "new_[xy]".
            if ln == 0:
                new_x = XPos.RIGHT
                new_y = YPos.TOP
            elif ln == 1:
                new_x = XPos.LMARGIN
                new_y = YPos.NEXT
            elif ln == 2:
                new_x = XPos.LEFT
                new_y = YPos.NEXT
            else:
                raise ValueError(
                    f'Invalid value for parameter "ln" ({ln}),'
                    " must be an int between 0 and 2."
                )
            warnings.warn(
                (
                    'The parameter "ln" is deprecated.'
                    f" Instead of ln={ln} use new_x=XPos.{new_x.name}, new_y=YPos.{new_y.name}."
                ),
                DeprecationWarning,
                stacklevel=3,
            )
        align = Align.coerce(align)
        if align == Align.J:
            raise ValueError(
                "cell() only produces one text line, justified alignment is not possible"
            )
        # Font styles preloading must be performed before any call to FPDF.get_string_width:
        txt = self.normalize_text(txt)
        styled_txt_frags = self._preload_font_styles(txt, markdown)
        return self._render_styled_text_line(
            TextLine(
                styled_txt_frags,
                text_width=0.0,
                number_of_spaces=0,
                justify=False,
                trailing_nl=False,
            ),
            w,
            h,
            border,
            new_x=new_x,
            new_y=new_y,
            align=align,
            fill=fill,
            link=link,
            center=center,
        )

    def _render_styled_text_line(
        self,
        text_line: TextLine,
        w: float = None,
        h: float = None,
        border: Union[str, int] = 0,
        new_x: XPos = XPos.RIGHT,
        new_y: YPos = YPos.TOP,
        align: Align = Align.L,
        fill: bool = False,
        link: str = "",
        center: bool = False,
    ):
        """
        Prints a cell (rectangular area) with optional borders, background color and
        character string. The upper-left corner of the cell corresponds to the current
        position. The text can be aligned, centered or justified. After the call, the
        current position moves to the requested new position. It is possible to put a
        link on the text.

        If automatic page breaking is enabled and the cell goes beyond the limit, a
        page break is performed before outputting.

        Args:
            text_line (TextLine instance): Contains the (possibly empty) tuple of
                fragments to render.
            w (float): Cell width. Default value: None, meaning to fit text width.
                If 0, the cell extends up to the right margin.
            h (float): Cell height. Default value: None, meaning an height equal
                to the current font size.
            border: Indicates if borders must be drawn around the cell.
                The value can be either a number (`0`: no border ; `1`: frame)
                or a string containing some or all of the following characters
                (in any order):
                `L`: left ; `T`: top ; `R`: right ; `B`: bottom. Default value: 0.
            new_x (fpdf.enums.XPos): New current position in x after the call.
            new_y (fpdf.enums.YPos): New current position in y after the call.
            align (fpdf.enums.Align): Allows to align the text inside the cell.
                Possible values are:
                `L` or empty string: left align (default value);
                `C`: center; `X`: center around current x; `R`: right align;
                `J`: justify (if more than one word)
            fill (bool): Indicates if the cell background must be painted (`True`)
                or transparent (`False`). Default value: False.
            link (str): optional link to add on the cell, internal
                (identifier returned by `FPDF.add_link`) or external URL.
            center (bool): **DEPRECATED since 2.5.1**: Use `align="C"` instead.
            markdown (bool): enable minimal markdown-like markup to render part
                of text as bold / italics / underlined. Default to False.

        Returns: a boolean indicating if page break was triggered
        """
        if not self.font_family:
            raise FPDFException("No font set, you need to call set_font() beforehand")
        if isinstance(border, int) and border not in (0, 1):
            warnings.warn(
                'Integer values for "border" parameter other than 1 are currently '
                "ignored"
            )
            border = 1
        styled_txt_width = text_line.text_width
        if not styled_txt_width:
            for i, frag in enumerate(text_line.fragments):
                unscaled_width = frag.get_width(initial_cs=i != 0)
                styled_txt_width += unscaled_width

        if w == 0:
            w = self.w - self.r_margin - self.x
        elif w is None:
            if not text_line.fragments:
                raise ValueError(
                    "A 'text_line' parameter with fragments must be provided if 'w' is None"
                )
            w = styled_txt_width + self.c_margin + self.c_margin
        max_font_size = 0  # how much height we need to accomodate.
        # currently all font sizes within a line are vertically aligned on the baseline.
        for frag in text_line.fragments:
            if frag.font_size > max_font_size:
                max_font_size = frag.font_size
        if h is None:
            h = max_font_size
        if align == Align.X:
            self.x -= w / 2
        if center:
            self.x = self.l_margin + (self.epw - w) / 2
        page_break_triggered = self._perform_page_break_if_need_be(h)
        sl = []
        k = self.k
        # pylint: disable=invalid-unary-operand-type
        # "h" can't actually be None
        if fill:
            op = "B" if border == 1 else "f"
            sl.append(
                f"{self.x * k:.2f} {(self.h - self.y) * k:.2f} "
                f"{w * k:.2f} {-h * k:.2f} re {op}"
            )
        elif border == 1:
            sl.append(
                f"{self.x * k:.2f} {(self.h - self.y) * k:.2f} "
                f"{w * k:.2f} {-h * k:.2f} re S"
            )
        # pylint: enable=invalid-unary-operand-type

        if isinstance(border, str):
            x = self.x
            y = self.y
            if "L" in border:
                sl.append(
                    f"{x * k:.2f} {(self.h - y) * k:.2f} m "
                    f"{x * k:.2f} {(self.h - (y + h)) * k:.2f} l S"
                )
            if "T" in border:
                sl.append(
                    f"{x * k:.2f} {(self.h - y) * k:.2f} m "
                    f"{(x + w) * k:.2f} {(self.h - y) * k:.2f} l S"
                )
            if "R" in border:
                sl.append(
                    f"{(x + w) * k:.2f} {(self.h - y) * k:.2f} m "
                    f"{(x + w) * k:.2f} {(self.h - (y + h)) * k:.2f} l S"
                )
            if "B" in border:
                sl.append(
                    f"{x * k:.2f} {(self.h - (y + h)) * k:.2f} m "
                    f"{(x + w) * k:.2f} {(self.h - (y + h)) * k:.2f} l S"
                )

        if self._record_text_quad_points:
            self._add_quad_points(self.x, self.y, w, h)

        s_start = self.x
        s_width, underlines = 0, []
        # We try to avoid modifying global settings for temporary changes.
        current_ws = frag_ws = 0.0
        current_char_vpos = CharVPos.LINE
        current_font = self.current_font
        current_text_mode = self.text_mode
        current_font_stretching = self.font_stretching
        current_char_spacing = self.char_spacing
        if text_line.fragments:
            if align == Align.R:
                dx = w - self.c_margin - styled_txt_width
            elif align in [Align.C, Align.X]:
                dx = (w - styled_txt_width) / 2
            else:
                dx = self.c_margin
            s_start += dx

            if self.fill_color != self.text_color:
                sl.append(self.text_color.serialize().lower())

            # do this once in advance
            u_space = escape_parens(" ".encode("utf-16-be").decode("latin-1"))
            word_spacing = 0
            if text_line.justify:
                # Don't rely on align==Align.J here.
                # If a line gets broken by an explicit '\n', then MultiLineBreak
                # will set its justify to False (end of paragraph).
                word_spacing = (
                    w - self.c_margin - self.c_margin - styled_txt_width
                ) / text_line.number_of_spaces

            sl.append(
                f"BT {(self.x + dx) * k:.2f} "
                f"{(self.h - self.y - 0.5 * h - 0.3 * max_font_size) * k:.2f} Td"
            )
            for i, frag in enumerate(text_line.fragments):
                if word_spacing and frag.font_stretching != 100:
                    # Space character is already stretched, extra spacing is absolute.
                    frag_ws = word_spacing * 100 / frag.font_stretching
                else:
                    frag_ws = word_spacing
                if current_font_stretching != frag.font_stretching:
                    current_font_stretching = frag.font_stretching
                    sl.append(f"{frag.font_stretching:.2f} Tz")
                if current_char_spacing != frag.char_spacing:
                    current_char_spacing = frag.char_spacing
                    sl.append(f"{frag.char_spacing:.2f} Tc")
                if current_font != frag.font or current_char_vpos != frag.char_vpos:
                    if current_char_vpos != frag.char_vpos:
                        current_char_vpos = frag.char_vpos
                    current_font = frag.font
                    sl.append(f"/F{frag.font['i']} {frag.font_size_pt:.2f} Tf")
                lift = frag.lift
                if lift != 0.0:
                    sl.append(f"{lift:.2f} Ts")
                if (
                    frag.text_mode != TextMode.FILL
                    or frag.text_mode != current_text_mode
                ):
                    current_text_mode = frag.text_mode
                    sl.append(f"{frag.text_mode} Tr {frag.line_width:.2f} w")

                if frag.is_ttf_font:
                    mapped_text = ""
                    for char in frag.string:
                        uni = ord(char)
                        mapped_text += chr(frag.font["subset"].pick(uni))
                    if word_spacing:
                        # "Tw" only has an effect on the ASCII space character and ignores
                        # space characters from unicode (TTF) fonts. As a workaround,
                        # we do word spacing using an adjustment before each space.
                        # Determine the index of the space character (" ") in the current
                        # subset and split words whenever this mapping code is found
                        words = mapped_text.split(
                            chr(frag.font["subset"].pick(ord(" ")))
                        )
                        words_strl = []
                        for i, word in enumerate(words):
                            word = escape_parens(
                                word.encode("utf-16-be").decode("latin-1")
                            )
                            if i == 0:
                                words_strl.append(f"({word})")
                            else:
                                adj = -(frag_ws * frag.k) * 1000 / frag.font_size_pt
                                words_strl.append(f"{adj:.3f}({u_space}{word})")
                        escaped_text = " ".join(words_strl)
                        sl.append(f"[{escaped_text}] TJ")
                    else:
                        escaped_text = escape_parens(
                            mapped_text.encode("utf-16-be").decode("latin-1")
                        )
                        sl.append(f"({escaped_text}) Tj")
                else:  # core fonts
                    if frag_ws != current_ws:
                        sl.append(f"{frag_ws * frag.k:.3f} Tw")
                        current_ws = frag_ws
                    escaped_text = escape_parens(frag.string)
                    sl.append(f"({escaped_text}) Tj")
                frag_width = frag.get_width(
                    initial_cs=i != 0
                ) + word_spacing * frag.characters.count(" ")
                if frag.underline:
                    underlines.append(
                        (self.x + dx + s_width, frag_width, frag.font, frag.font_size)
                    )
                if frag.url:
                    self.link(
                        x=self.x + dx + s_width,
                        y=self.y + (0.5 * h) - (0.5 * frag.font_size),
                        w=frag_width,
                        h=frag.font_size,
                        link=frag.url,
                    )
                s_width += frag_width

            sl.append("ET")

            for start_x, ul_w, ul_font, ul_font_size in underlines:
                sl.append(
                    self._do_underline(
                        start_x,
                        self.y + (0.5 * h) + (0.3 * ul_font_size),
                        ul_w,
                        ul_font,
                    )
                )
            if link:
                self.link(
                    self.x + dx,
                    self.y + (0.5 * h) - (0.5 * frag.font_size),
                    styled_txt_width,
                    frag.font_size,
                    link,
                )

        if sl:
            # If any PDF settings have been left modified, wrap the line
            # in a local context.
            # pylint: disable=too-many-boolean-expressions
            if (
                current_ws != 0.0
                or current_char_vpos != CharVPos.LINE
                or current_font != self.current_font
                or current_text_mode != self.text_mode
                or self.fill_color != self.text_color
                or current_font_stretching != self.font_stretching
                or current_char_spacing != self.char_spacing
            ):
                s = f"q {' '.join(sl)} Q"
            else:
                s = " ".join(sl)
            # pylint: enable=too-many-boolean-expressions
            self._out(s)
        # If the text is empty, h = max_font_size ends up as 0.
        # We still need a valid default height for self.ln() (issue #601).
        self._lasth = h or self.font_size

        # XPos.LEFT -> self.x stays the same
        if new_x == XPos.RIGHT:
            self.x += w
        elif new_x == XPos.START:
            self.x = s_start
        elif new_x == XPos.END:
            self.x = s_start + s_width
        elif new_x == XPos.WCONT:
            self.x = s_start + s_width - self.c_margin
        elif new_x == XPos.CENTER:
            self.x = s_start + s_width / 2.0
        elif new_x == XPos.LMARGIN:
            self.x = self.l_margin
        elif new_x == XPos.RMARGIN:
            self.x = self.w - self.r_margin

        # YPos.TOP:  -> self.y stays the same
        # YPos.LAST: -> self.y stays the same (single line)
        if new_y == YPos.NEXT:
            self.y += h
        if new_y == YPos.TMARGIN:
            self.y = self.t_margin
        if new_y == YPos.BMARGIN:
            self.y = self.h - self.b_margin

        return page_break_triggered

    def _add_quad_points(self, x, y, w, h):
        self._text_quad_points[self.page].extend(
            [
                x * self.k,
                (self.h - y) * self.k,
                (x + w) * self.k,
                (self.h - y) * self.k,
                x * self.k,
                (self.h - y - h) * self.k,
                (x + w) * self.k,
                (self.h - y - h) * self.k,
            ]
        )

    def _preload_font_styles(self, txt, markdown):
        """
        When Markdown styling is enabled, we require secondary fonts
        to ender text in bold & italics.
        This function ensure that those fonts are available.
        It needs to perform Markdown parsing,
        so we return the resulting `styled_txt_frags` tuple
        to avoid repeating this processing later on.
        """
        if not txt:
            return tuple()
        if not markdown:
            return tuple([Fragment(txt, self._get_current_graphics_state(), self.k)])
        prev_font_style = self.font_style
        styled_txt_frags = tuple(self._markdown_parse(txt))
        page = self.page
        # We set the current to page to zero so that
        # set_font() does not produce any text object on the stream buffer:
        self.page = 0
        if any("B" in frag.font_style for frag in styled_txt_frags):
            # Ensuring bold font is supported:
            self.set_font(style="B")
        if any("I" in frag.font_style for frag in styled_txt_frags):
            # Ensuring italics font is supported:
            self.set_font(style="I")
        for frag in styled_txt_frags:
            frag.font = self.fonts[frag.font_family + frag.font_style]
        # Restoring initial style:
        self.set_font(style=prev_font_style)
        self.page = page
        return styled_txt_frags

    def _markdown_parse(self, txt):
        "Split some text into fragments based on styling: **bold**, __italics__, --underlined--"
        txt_frag, in_bold, in_italics, in_underline = (
            [],
            "B" in self.font_style,
            "I" in self.font_style,
            bool(self.underline),
        )

        def frag():
            gstate = self._get_current_graphics_state()
            gstate["font_style"] = ("B" if in_bold else "") + (
                "I" if in_italics else ""
            )
            gstate["underline"] = in_underline
            nonlocal txt_frag
            fragment = Fragment(txt_frag, gstate, self.k)
            txt_frag = []
            return fragment

        while txt:
            is_marker = txt[:2] in (
                self.MARKDOWN_BOLD_MARKER,
                self.MARKDOWN_ITALICS_MARKER,
                self.MARKDOWN_UNDERLINE_MARKER,
            )
            half_marker = txt[0]
            # Check that previous & next characters are not identical to the marker:
            if (
                is_marker
                and (not txt_frag or txt_frag[0] != half_marker)
                and (len(txt) < 3 or txt[2] != half_marker)
            ):
                if txt_frag:
                    yield frag()
                if txt[:2] == self.MARKDOWN_BOLD_MARKER:
                    in_bold = not in_bold
                if txt[:2] == self.MARKDOWN_ITALICS_MARKER:
                    in_italics = not in_italics
                if txt[:2] == self.MARKDOWN_UNDERLINE_MARKER:
                    in_underline = not in_underline
                txt = txt[2:]
                continue
            is_link = self.MARKDOWN_LINK_REGEX.match(txt)
            if is_link:
                link_text, link_url, txt = is_link.groups()
                if txt_frag:
                    yield frag()
                gstate = self._get_current_graphics_state()
                gstate["underline"] = True
                if self.MARKDOWN_LINK_COLOR:
                    gstate["text_color"] = self.MARKDOWN_LINK_COLOR
                yield Fragment(list(link_text), gstate, self.k, url=link_url)
                continue
            txt_frag.append(txt[0])
            txt = txt[1:]
        if txt_frag:
            yield frag()

    def will_page_break(self, height):
        """
        Let you know if adding an element will trigger a page break,
        based on its height and the current ordinate (`y` position).

        Args:
            height (float): height of the section that would be added, e.g. a cell

        Returns: a boolean indicating if a page break would occur
        """
        return (
            # ensure that there is already some content on the page:
            self.y > self.t_margin
            and self.y + height > self.page_break_trigger
            and not self.in_footer
            and self.accept_page_break
        )

    def _perform_page_break_if_need_be(self, h):
        if self.will_page_break(h):
            LOGGER.debug(
                "Page break on page %d at y=%d for element of height %d > %d",
                self.page,
                self.y,
                h,
                self.page_break_trigger,
            )
            self._perform_page_break()
            return True
        return False

    def _perform_page_break(self):
        x = self.x
        self.add_page(same=True)
        self.x = x  # restore x but not y after drawing header

    def _has_next_page(self):
        return self.pages_count > self.page

    @check_page
    def multi_cell(
        self,
        w,
        h=None,
        txt="",
        border=0,
        align=Align.J,
        fill=False,
        split_only=False,
        link="",
        ln="DEPRECATED",
        max_line_height=None,
        markdown=False,
        print_sh=False,
        new_x=XPos.RIGHT,
        new_y=YPos.NEXT,
    ):
        """
        This method allows printing text with line breaks. They can be automatic
        (breaking at the most recent space or soft-hyphen character) as soon as the text
        reaches the right border of the cell, or explicit (via the `\\n` character).
        As many cells as necessary are stacked, one below the other.
        Text can be aligned, centered or justified. The cell block can be framed and
        the background painted.

        Args:
            w (float): cell width. If 0, they extend up to the right margin of the page.
            h (float): cell height. Default value: None, meaning to use the current font size.
            txt (str): string to print.
            border: Indicates if borders must be drawn around the cell.
                The value can be either a number (`0`: no border ; `1`: frame)
                or a string containing some or all of the following characters
                (in any order):
                `L`: left ; `T`: top ; `R`: right ; `B`: bottom. Default value: 0.
            align (fpdf.enums.Align, str): Allows to center or align the text.
                Possible values are:
                `J`: justify (default value); `L` or empty string: left align;
                `C`: center; `X`: center around current x; `R`: right align
            fill (bool): Indicates if the cell background must be painted (`True`)
                or transparent (`False`). Default value: False.
            split_only (bool): if `True`, does not output anything, only perform
                word-wrapping and return the resulting multi-lines array of strings.
            link (str): optional link to add on the cell, internal
                (identifier returned by `add_link`) or external URL.
            new_x (fpdf.enums.XPos, str): New current position in x after the call. Default: RIGHT
            new_y (fpdf.enums.YPos, str): New current position in y after the call. Default: NEXT
            ln (int): **DEPRECATED since 2.5.1**: Use `new_x` and `new_y` instead.
            max_line_height (float): optional maximum height of each sub-cell generated
            markdown (bool): enable minimal markdown-like markup to render part
                of text as bold / italics / underlined. Default to False.
            print_sh (bool): Treat a soft-hyphen (\\u00ad) as a normal printable
                character, instead of a line breaking opportunity. Default value: False

        Using `new_x=XPos.RIGHT, new_y=XPos.TOP, maximum height=pdf.font_size` is
        useful to build tables with multiline text in cells.

        Returns: a boolean indicating if page break was triggered,
            or if `split_only == True`: `txt` splitted into lines in an array
        """
        if isinstance(w, str) or isinstance(h, str):
            raise ValueError(
                "Parameter 'w' and 'h' must be numbers, not strings."
                " You can omit them by passing string content with txt="
            )
        new_x = XPos.coerce(new_x)
        new_y = YPos.coerce(new_y)
        if ln != "DEPRECATED":
            # For backwards compatibility, if "ln" is used we overwrite "new_[xy]".
            if ln == 0:
                new_x = XPos.RIGHT
                new_y = YPos.NEXT
            elif ln == 1:
                new_x = XPos.LMARGIN
                new_y = YPos.NEXT
            elif ln == 2:
                new_x = XPos.LEFT
                new_y = YPos.NEXT
            elif ln == 3:
                new_x = XPos.RIGHT
                new_y = YPos.TOP
            else:
                raise ValueError(
                    f'Invalid value for parameter "ln" ({ln}),'
                    " must be an int between 0 and 3."
                )
            warnings.warn(
                (
                    'The parameter "ln" is deprecated.'
                    f" Instead of ln={ln} use new_x=XPos.{new_x.name}, new_y=YPos.{new_y.name}."
                ),
                DeprecationWarning,
                stacklevel=3,
            )
        align = Align.coerce(align)

        page_break_triggered = False
        if split_only:
            self._out = lambda *args, **kwargs: None
            self.add_page = lambda *args, **kwargs: None
            self._perform_page_break_if_need_be = lambda *args, **kwargs: None

        if h is None:
            h = self.font_size
        # If width is 0, set width to available width between margins
        if w == 0:
            w = self.w - self.r_margin - self.x
        maximum_allowed_width = w - 2 * self.c_margin

        # Calculate text length
        txt = self.normalize_text(txt)
        normalized_string = txt.replace("\r", "")
        styled_text_fragments = self._preload_font_styles(normalized_string, markdown)

        prev_font_style, prev_underline = self.font_style, self.underline
        prev_x, prev_y = self.x, self.y

        if not border:
            border = ""
        elif border == 1:
            border = "LTRB"

        text_lines = []
        multi_line_break = MultiLineBreak(
            styled_text_fragments,
            justify=(align == Align.J),
            print_sh=print_sh,
        )
        text_line = multi_line_break.get_line_of_given_width(maximum_allowed_width)
        while (text_line) is not None:
            text_lines.append(text_line)
            text_line = multi_line_break.get_line_of_given_width(maximum_allowed_width)

        if not text_lines:  # ensure we display at least one cell - cf. issue #349
            text_lines = [
                TextLine(
                    "",
                    text_width=0,
                    number_of_spaces=0,
                    justify=False,
                    trailing_nl=False,
                )
            ]
        if align == Align.X:
            prev_x = self.x
        should_render_bottom_blank_cell = False
        for text_line_index, text_line in enumerate(text_lines):
            is_last_line = text_line_index == len(text_lines) - 1
            should_render_bottom_blank_cell = False
            if max_line_height is not None and h > max_line_height:
                current_cell_height = max_line_height
                h -= current_cell_height
                if is_last_line:
                    if h > 0 and len(text_lines) > 1:
                        should_render_bottom_blank_cell = True
                    else:
                        h += current_cell_height
                        current_cell_height = h
            else:
                current_cell_height = h
            has_line_after = not is_last_line or should_render_bottom_blank_cell
            new_page = self._render_styled_text_line(
                text_line,
                w,
                h=current_cell_height,
                border="".join(
                    (
                        "T" if "T" in border and text_line_index == 0 else "",
                        "L" if "L" in border else "",
                        "R" if "R" in border else "",
                        "B" if "B" in border and not has_line_after else "",
                    )
                ),
                new_x=new_x if not has_line_after else XPos.LEFT,
                new_y=new_y if not has_line_after else YPos.NEXT,
                align=Align.L if (align == Align.J and is_last_line) else align,
                fill=fill,
                link=link,
            )
            page_break_triggered = page_break_triggered or new_page
            if not is_last_line and align == Align.X:
                # prevent cumulative shift to the left
                self.x = prev_x
        if should_render_bottom_blank_cell:
            new_page = self._render_styled_text_line(
                TextLine(
                    "",
                    text_width=0,
                    number_of_spaces=0,
                    justify=False,
                    trailing_nl=False,
                ),
                w,
                h=h,
                border="".join(
                    (
                        "L" if "L" in border else "",
                        "R" if "R" in border else "",
                        "B" if "B" in border else "",
                    )
                ),
                new_x=new_x,
                new_y=new_y,
                fill=fill,
                link=link,
            )
            page_break_triggered = page_break_triggered or new_page
        if new_page and new_y == YPos.TOP:
            # When a page jump is performed and the requested y is TOP,
            # pretend we started at the top of the text block on the new page.
            # cf. test_multi_cell_table_with_automatic_page_break
            prev_y = self.y
        if text_line.trailing_nl and new_y in (YPos.LAST, YPos.NEXT):
            # The line renderer can't handle trailing newlines in the text.
            self.ln()

        if new_y == YPos.TOP:  # We may have jumped a few lines -> reset
            self.y = prev_y

        if split_only:
            # restore writing functions
            del self.add_page
            del self._out
            del self._perform_page_break_if_need_be
            self.set_xy(prev_x, prev_y)  # restore location
            result = []
            for text_line in text_lines:
                characters = []
                for frag in text_line.fragments:
                    characters.extend(frag.characters)
                result.append("".join(characters))
            return result
        if markdown:
            if self.font_style != prev_font_style:
                self.font_style = prev_font_style
                self.current_font = self.fonts[self.font_family + self.font_style]
            self.underline = prev_underline

        return page_break_triggered

    @check_page
    def write(
        self, h: float = None, txt: str = "", link: str = "", print_sh: bool = False
    ):
        """
        Prints text from the current position.
        When the right margin is reached, a line break occurs at the most recent
        space or soft-hyphen character, and text continues from the left margin.
        A manual break happens any time the \\n character is met,
        Upon method exit, the current position is left just at the end of the text.

        Args:
            h (float): line height. Default value: None, meaning to use the current font size.
            txt (str): text content
            link (str): optional link to add on the text, internal
                (identifier returned by `FPDF.add_link`) or external URL.
            print_sh (bool): Treat a soft-hyphen (\\u00ad) as a normal printable
                character, instead of a line breaking opportunity. Default value: False
        """
        if not self.font_family:
            raise FPDFException("No font set, you need to call set_font() beforehand")
        if isinstance(h, str):
            raise ValueError(
                "Parameter 'h' must be a number, not a string."
                " You can omit it by passing string content with txt="
            )
        if h is None:
            h = self.font_size

        page_break_triggered = False
        normalized_string = self.normalize_text(txt).replace("\r", "")
        styled_text_fragments = self._preload_font_styles(normalized_string, False)

        text_lines = []
        multi_line_break = MultiLineBreak(
            styled_text_fragments,
            print_sh=print_sh,
        )
        # first line from current x position to right margin
        first_width = self.w - self.x - self.r_margin
        text_line = multi_line_break.get_line_of_given_width(
            first_width - 2 * self.c_margin, wordsplit=False
        )
        # remaining lines fill between margins
        full_width = self.w - self.l_margin - self.r_margin
        fit_width = full_width - 2 * self.c_margin
        while (text_line) is not None:
            text_lines.append(text_line)
            text_line = multi_line_break.get_line_of_given_width(fit_width)
        if not text_lines:
            return False

        for text_line_index, text_line in enumerate(text_lines):
            if text_line_index == 0:
                line_width = first_width
            else:
                line_width = full_width
                self.ln()
            new_page = self._render_styled_text_line(
                text_line,
                line_width,
                h=h,
                border=0,
                new_x=XPos.WCONT,
                new_y=YPos.TOP,
                align=Align.L,
                fill=False,
                link=link,
            )
            page_break_triggered = page_break_triggered or new_page
        if text_line.trailing_nl:
            # The line renderer can't handle trailing newlines in the text.
            self.ln()
        return page_break_triggered

    @check_page
    def image(
        self,
        name,
        x=None,
        y=None,
        w=0,
        h=0,
        type="",
        link="",
        title=None,
        alt_text=None,
        dims=None,
    ):
        """
        Put an image on the page.

        The size of the image on the page can be specified in different ways:
        * explicit width and height (expressed in user units)
        * one explicit dimension, the other being calculated automatically
          in order to keep the original proportions
        * no explicit dimension, in which case the image is put at 72 dpi.

        **Remarks**:
        * if an image is used several times, only one copy is embedded in the file.
        * when using an animated GIF, only the first frame is used.

        Args:
            name: either a string representing a file path to an image, an URL to an image,
                an io.BytesIO, or a instance of `PIL.Image.Image`
            x (float, fpdf.enums.Align): optional horizontal position where to put the image on the page.
                If not specified or equal to None, the current abscissa is used.
                `Align.C` can also be passed to center the image horizontally;
                and `Align.R` to place it along the right page margin
            y (float): optional vertical position where to put the image on the page.
                If not specified or equal to None, the current ordinate is used.
                After the call, the current ordinate is moved to the bottom of the image
            w (float): optional width of the image. If not specified or equal to zero,
                it is automatically calculated from the image size.
                Pass `pdf.epw` to scale horizontally to the full page width.
            h (float): optional height of the image. If not specified or equal to zero,
                it is automatically calculated from the image size.
                Pass `pdf.eph` to scale horizontally to the full page height.
            type (str): [**DEPRECATED since 2.2.0**] unused, will be removed in a later version.
            link (str): optional link to add on the image, internal
                (identifier returned by `FPDF.add_link`) or external URL.
            title (str): optional. Currently, never seem rendered by PDF readers.
            alt_text (str): optional alternative text describing the image,
                for accessibility purposes. Displayed by some PDF readers on hover.
            dims (Tuple[float]): optional dimensions as a tuple (width, height) to resize the image
                before storing it in the PDF. Note that those are the **intrinsic** image dimensions,
                but the image will still be rendered on the page with the width (`w`) and height (`h`)
                provided as parameters. Note also that the `.oversized_images` attribute of FPDF
                provides an automated way to auto-adjust those intrinsic image dimensions.
        """
        if type:
            warnings.warn(
                '"type" parameter is deprecated, unused and will soon be removed',
                DeprecationWarning,
                stacklevel=3,
            )
        if str(name).endswith(".svg"):
            # Insert it as a PDF path:
            img = load_image(str(name))
            return self._vector_image(img, x, y, w, h, link, title, alt_text)
        if isinstance(name, str):
            img = None
        elif isinstance(name, Image):
            bytes = name.tobytes()
            img_hash = hashlib.new("md5", usedforsecurity=False)  # nosec B324
            img_hash.update(bytes)
            name, img = img_hash.hexdigest(), name
        elif isinstance(name, io.BytesIO):
            bytes = name.getvalue().strip()
            if _is_svg(bytes):
                return self._vector_image(name, x, y, w, h, link, title, alt_text)
            img_hash = hashlib.new("md5", usedforsecurity=False)  # nosec B324
            img_hash.update(bytes)
            name, img = img_hash.hexdigest(), name
        else:
            name, img = str(name), name
        info = self.images.get(name)
        if info:
            info["usages"] += 1
        else:
            if not img:
                img = load_image(name)
            info = get_img_info(img, self.image_filter, dims)
            info["i"] = len(self.images) + 1
            info["usages"] = 1
            self.images[name] = info
        if "smask" in info:
            self._set_min_pdf_version("1.4")

        # Automatic width and height calculation if needed
        if w == 0 and h == 0:  # Put image at 72 dpi
            w = info["w"] / self.k
            h = info["h"] / self.k
        elif w == 0:
            w = h * info["w"] / info["h"]
        elif h == 0:
            h = w * info["h"] / info["w"]

        if self.oversized_images and info["usages"] == 1 and not dims:
            info = self._downscale_image(name, img, info, w, h)

        # Flowing mode
        if y is None:
            self._perform_page_break_if_need_be(h)
            y = self.y
            self.y += h
        if x is None:
            x = self.x
        elif not isinstance(x, Number):
            x = Align.coerce(x)
            if x == Align.C:
                x = (self.w - w) / 2
            elif x == Align.R:
                x = self.w - w - self.r_margin
            elif x == Align.L:
                x = self.l_margin
            else:
                raise ValueError(f"Unsupported 'x' value passed to .image(): {x}")

        stream_content = (
            f"q {w * self.k:.2f} 0 0 {h * self.k:.2f} {x * self.k:.2f} "
            f"{(self.h - y - h) * self.k:.2f} cm /I{info['i']} Do Q"
        )
        if title or alt_text:
            with self._marked_sequence(title=title, alt_text=alt_text):
                self._out(stream_content)
        else:
            self._out(stream_content)
        if link:
            self.link(x, y, w, h, link)

        return {**info, "rendered_width": w, "rendered_height": h}

    def _vector_image(
        self,
        img: io.BytesIO,
        x=None,
        y=None,
        w=0,
        h=0,
        link="",
        title=None,
        alt_text=None,
    ):
        svg = SVGObject(img.getvalue())
        if w == 0 and h == 0:
            if not svg.width or not svg.height:
                raise ValueError(
                    '<svg> has no "height" / "width": w= or h= must be provided to FPDF.image()'
                )
            w = (
                svg.width * self.epw / 100
                if isinstance(svg.width, Percent)
                else svg.width
            )
            h = (
                svg.height * self.eph / 100
                if isinstance(svg.height, Percent)
                else svg.height
            )
        else:
            _, _, vw, vh = svg.viewbox
            if w == 0:
                w = vw * h / vh
            elif h == 0:
                h = vh * w / vw

        # Flowing mode
        if y is None:
            self._perform_page_break_if_need_be(h)
            y = self.y
            self.y += h
        if x is None:
            x = self.x

        _, _, path = svg.transform_to_rect_viewport(
            scale=1, width=w, height=h, ignore_svg_top_attrs=True
        )
        path.transform = path.transform @ drawing.Transform.translation(x, y)

        old_x, old_y = self.x, self.y
        try:
            self.set_xy(0, 0)
            if title or alt_text:
                with self._marked_sequence(title=title, alt_text=alt_text):
                    self.draw_path(path)
            else:
                self.draw_path(path)
        finally:
            self.set_xy(old_x, old_y)
        if link:
            self.link(x, y, w, h, link)

        return {"rendered_width": w, "rendered_height": h}

    def _downscale_image(self, name, img, info, w, h):
        width_in_pt, height_in_pt = w * self.k, h * self.k
        lowres_name = f"lowres-{name}"
        lowres_info = self.images.get(lowres_name)
        if (
            info["w"] > width_in_pt * self.oversized_images_ratio
            and info["h"] > height_in_pt * self.oversized_images_ratio
        ):
            factor = (
                min(info["w"] / width_in_pt, info["h"] / height_in_pt)
                / self.oversized_images_ratio
            )
            if self.oversized_images.lower().startswith("warn"):
                LOGGER.warning(
                    "OVERSIZED: Image %s with size %.1fx%.1fpx is rendered at size %.1fx%.1fpt."
                    " Set pdf.oversized_images = 'DOWNSCALE' to reduce embedded image size by a factor %.1f",
                    name,
                    info["w"],
                    info["h"],
                    width_in_pt,
                    height_in_pt,
                    factor,
                )
            elif self.oversized_images.lower() == "downscale":
                dims = (
                    round(width_in_pt * self.oversized_images_ratio),
                    round(height_in_pt * self.oversized_images_ratio),
                )
                info["usages"] -= 1  # no need to embed the high-resolution image
                if lowres_info:  # Great, we've already done the job!
                    info = lowres_info
                    if info["w"] * info["h"] < dims[0] * dims[1]:
                        # The existing low-res image is too small, we need a bigger low-res image:
                        info.update(
                            get_img_info(
                                img or load_image(name), self.image_filter, dims
                            )
                        )
                        LOGGER.debug(
                            "OVERSIZED: Updated low-res image with name=%s id=%d to dims=%s",
                            lowres_name,
                            info["i"],
                            dims,
                        )
                    info["usages"] += 1
                else:
                    info = get_img_info(
                        img or load_image(name), self.image_filter, dims
                    )
                    info["i"] = len(self.images) + 1
                    info["usages"] = 1
                    self.images[lowres_name] = info
                    LOGGER.debug(
                        "OVERSIZED: Generated new low-res image with name=%s dims=%s id=%d",
                        lowres_name,
                        dims,
                        info["i"],
                    )
            else:
                raise ValueError(
                    f"Invalid value for attribute .oversized_images: {self.oversized_images}"
                )
        elif lowres_info:
            # Embedding the same image in high-res after inserting it in low-res:
            lowres_info.update(info)
            del self.images[name]
            info = lowres_info
        return info

    @contextmanager
    def _marked_sequence(self, **kwargs):
        """
        Can receive as named arguments any of the entries described in section 14.7.2 'Structure Hierarchy'
        of the PDF spec: iD, a, c, r, lang, e, actualText
        """
        mcid = self.struct_builder.next_mcid_for_page(self.page)
        struct_elem = self._add_marked_content(
            struct_type="/Figure", mcid=mcid, **kwargs
        )
        start_page = self.page
        self._out(f"/P <</MCID {mcid}>> BDC")
        yield struct_elem
        if self.page != start_page:
            raise FPDFException("A page jump occured inside a marked sequence")
        self._out("EMC")

    def _add_marked_content(self, **kwargs):
        """
        Can receive as named arguments any of the entries described in section 14.7.2 'Structure Hierarchy'
        of the PDF spec: iD, a, c, r, lang, e, actualText
        """
        struct_elem, spid = self.struct_builder.add_marked_content(
            page_number=self.page, **kwargs
        )
        self.pages[self.page].struct_parents = spid
        self._set_min_pdf_version("1.4")  # due to using /MarkInfo
        return struct_elem

    @check_page
    def ln(self, h=None):
        """
        Line Feed.
        The current abscissa goes back to the left margin and the ordinate increases by
        the amount passed as parameter.

        Args:
            h (float): The height of the break.
                By default, the value equals the height of the last printed cell.
        """
        self.x = self.l_margin
        self.y += self._lasth if h is None else h

    def get_x(self):
        """Returns the abscissa of the current position."""
        return self.x

    def set_x(self, x):
        """
        Defines the abscissa of the current position.
        If the value provided is negative, it is relative to the right of the page.

        Args:
            x (float): the new current abscissa
        """
        self.x = x if x >= 0 else self.w + x

    def get_y(self):
        """Returns the ordinate of the current position."""
        if self._in_unbreakable:
            raise FPDFException(
                "Using get_y() inside an unbreakable() code block is error-prone"
            )
        return self.y

    def set_y(self, y):
        """
        Moves the current abscissa back to the left margin and sets the ordinate.
        If the value provided is negative, it is relative to the bottom of the page.

        Args:
            y (float): the new current ordinate
        """
        self.x = self.l_margin
        self.y = y if y >= 0 else self.h + y

    def set_xy(self, x, y):
        """
        Defines the abscissa and ordinate of the current position.
        If the values provided are negative, they are relative respectively to the right and bottom of the page.

        Args:
            x (float): the new current abscissa
            y (float): the new current ordinate
        """
        self.set_y(y)
        self.set_x(x)

    def normalize_text(self, txt):
        """Check that text input is in the correct format/encoding"""
        # - for TTF unicode fonts: unicode object (utf8 encoding)
        # - for built-in fonts: string instances (encoding: latin-1, cp1252)
        if not self.is_ttf_font and self.core_fonts_encoding:
            try:
                return txt.encode(self.core_fonts_encoding).decode("latin-1")
            except UnicodeEncodeError as error:
                raise FPDFUnicodeEncodingException(
                    text_index=error.start,
                    character=txt[error.start],
                    font_name=self.font_family + self.font_style,
                ) from error
        return txt

    def sign_pkcs12(
        self,
        pkcs_filepath,
        password=None,
        hashalgo="sha256",
        contact_info=None,
        location=None,
        signing_time=None,
        reason=None,
        flags=(AnnotationFlag.PRINT, AnnotationFlag.LOCKED),
    ):
        """
        Args:
            pkcs_filepath (str): file path to a .pfx or .p12 PKCS12,
                in the binary format described by RFC 7292
            password (bytes-like): the password to use to decrypt the data.
                `None` if the PKCS12 is not encrypted.
            hashalgo (str): hashing algorithm used, passed to `hashlib.new`
            contact_info (str): optional information provided by the signer to enable
                a recipient to contact the signer to verify the signature
            location (str): optional CPU host name or physical location of the signing
            signing_time (datetime): optional time of signing
            reason (str): optional signing reason
            flags (Tuple[fpdf.enums.AnnotationFlag], Tuple[str]): optional list of flags defining annotation properties
        """
        if not signer:
            raise EnvironmentError(
                "endesive.signer not available - PDF cannot be signed - Try: pip install endesive"
            )
        with open(pkcs_filepath, "rb") as pkcs_file:
            key, cert, extra_certs = pkcs12.load_key_and_certificates(
                pkcs_file.read(), password
            )
        self.sign(
            key=key,
            cert=cert,
            extra_certs=extra_certs,
            hashalgo=hashalgo,
            contact_info=contact_info,
            location=location,
            signing_time=signing_time,
            reason=reason,
            flags=flags,
        )

    @check_page
    def sign(
        self,
        key,
        cert,
        extra_certs=(),
        hashalgo="sha256",
        contact_info=None,
        location=None,
        signing_time=None,
        reason=None,
        flags=(AnnotationFlag.PRINT, AnnotationFlag.LOCKED),
    ):
        """
        Args:
            key: certificate private key
            cert (cryptography.x509.Certificate): certificate
            extra_certs (list[cryptography.x509.Certificate]): list of additional PKCS12 certificates
            hashalgo (str): hashing algorithm used, passed to `hashlib.new`
            contact_info (str): optional information provided by the signer to enable
                a recipient to contact the signer to verify the signature
            location (str): optional CPU host name or physical location of the signing
            signing_time (datetime): optional time of signing
            reason (str): optional signing reason
            flags (Tuple[fpdf.enums.AnnotationFlag], Tuple[str]): optional list of flags defining annotation properties
        """
        if not signer:
            raise EnvironmentError(
                "endesive.signer not available - PDF cannot be signed - Try: pip install endesive"
            )
        if self._sign_key:
            raise FPDFException(".sign* methods should be called only once")

        self._sign_key = key
        self._sign_cert = cert
        self._sign_extra_certs = extra_certs
        self._sign_hashalgo = hashalgo
        self._sign_time = signing_time or self.creation_date

        annotation = PDFAnnotation(
            "Widget",
            field_type="Sig",
            x=0,
            y=0,
            width=0,
            height=0,
            flags=flags,
            title="signature",
            value=Signature(
                contact_info=contact_info,
                location=location,
                m=format_date(self._sign_time),
                reason=reason,
            ),
        )
        self.pages[self.page].annots.append(annotation)

    def _substitute_page_number(self):
        substituted = False
        # Replace number of pages in fonts using subsets (unicode)
        alias = self.str_alias_nb_pages.encode("utf-16-be")
        encoded_nb = str(self.pages_count).encode("utf-16-be")
        for page in self.pages.values():
            substituted |= alias in page.contents
            page.contents = page.contents.replace(alias, encoded_nb)
        # Now repeat for no pages in non-subset fonts
        alias = self.str_alias_nb_pages.encode("latin-1")
        encoded_nb = str(self.pages_count).encode("latin-1")
        for page in self.pages.values():
            substituted |= alias in page.contents
            page.contents = page.contents.replace(alias, encoded_nb)
        if substituted:
            LOGGER.debug(
                "Substitution of '%s' was performed in the document",
                self.str_alias_nb_pages,
            )

    def _insert_table_of_contents(self):
        # Doc has been closed but we want to write to self.pages[self.page] instead of self.buffer:
        tocp = self._toc_placeholder
        prev_page, prev_y = self.page, self.y
        self.page, self.y = tocp.start_page, tocp.y
        # Disabling footer & header, as they have already been called:
        self.footer = lambda *args, **kwargs: None
        self.header = lambda *args, **kwargs: None
        tocp.render_function(self, self._outline)
        expected_final_page = tocp.start_page + tocp.pages - 1
        if self.page != expected_final_page:
            too = "many" if self.page > expected_final_page else "few"
            error_msg = f"The rendering function passed to FPDF.insert_toc_placeholder triggered too {too} page breaks: "
            error_msg += f"ToC ended on page {self.page} while it was expected to span exactly {tocp.pages} pages"
            raise FPDFException(error_msg)
        self.page, self.y = prev_page, prev_y
        del self.footer
        del self.header

    def file_id(self):
        """
        This method can be overridden in inherited classes
        in order to define a custom file identifier.
        Its output must have the format "<hex_string1><hex_string2>".
        If this method returns a falsy value (None, empty string),
        no /ID will be inserted in the generated PDF document.
        """
        return -1

    def _default_file_id(self, buffer):
        # Quoting the PDF 1.7 spec, section 14.4 File Identifiers:
        # > The value of this entry shall be an array of two byte strings.
        # > The first byte string shall be a permanent identifier
        # > based on the contents of the file at the time it was originally created
        # > and shall not change when the file is incrementally updated.
        # > The second byte string shall be a changing identifier
        # > based on the file’s contents at the time it was last updated.
        # > When a file is first written, both identifiers shall be set to the same value.
        id_hash = hashlib.new("md5", usedforsecurity=False)  # nosec B324
        id_hash.update(buffer)
        if self.creation_date:
            id_hash.update(self.creation_date.strftime("%Y%m%d%H%M%S").encode("utf8"))
        hash_hex = id_hash.hexdigest().upper()
        return f"<{hash_hex}><{hash_hex}>"

    def _do_underline(self, x, y, w, current_font=None):
        "Draw an horizontal line starting from (x, y) with a length equal to 'w'"
        if current_font is None:
            current_font = self.current_font
        up = current_font["up"]
        ut = current_font["ut"]
        return (
            f"{x * self.k:.2f} "
            f"{(self.h - y + up / 1000 * self.font_size) * self.k:.2f} "
            f"{w * self.k:.2f} {-ut / 1000 * self.font_size_pt:.2f} re f"
        )

    def _out(self, s):
        if self.buffer:
            raise FPDFException(
                "Content cannot be added on a finalized document, after calling output()"
            )
        if not isinstance(s, bytes):
            if not isinstance(s, str):
                s = str(s)
            s = s.encode("latin1")
        if not self.page:
            raise FPDFException("No page open, you need to call add_page() first")
        self.pages[self.page].contents += s + b"\n"

    @check_page
    def interleaved2of5(self, txt, x, y, w=1, h=10):
        """Barcode I2of5 (numeric), adds a 0 if odd length"""
        narrow = w / 3
        wide = w

        # wide/narrow codes for the digits
        bar_char = {
            "0": "nnwwn",
            "1": "wnnnw",
            "2": "nwnnw",
            "3": "wwnnn",
            "4": "nnwnw",
            "5": "wnwnn",
            "6": "nwwnn",
            "7": "nnnww",
            "8": "wnnwn",
            "9": "nwnwn",
            "A": "nn",
            "Z": "wn",
        }
        # The caller should do this, or we can't rotate the thing.
        # self.set_fill_color(0)
        code = txt
        # add leading zero if code-length is odd
        if len(code) % 2 != 0:
            code = f"0{code}"

        # add start and stop codes
        code = f"AA{code.lower()}ZA"

        for i in range(0, len(code), 2):
            # choose next pair of digits
            char_bar = code[i]
            char_space = code[i + 1]
            # check whether it is a valid digit
            if char_bar not in bar_char:
                raise RuntimeError(f'Char "{char_bar}" invalid for I25:')
            if char_space not in bar_char:
                raise RuntimeError(f'Char "{char_space}" invalid for I25: ')

            # create a wide/narrow-seq (first digit=bars, second digit=spaces)
            seq = "".join(
                f"{cb}{cs}" for cb, cs in zip(bar_char[char_bar], bar_char[char_space])
            )

            for bar_index, char in enumerate(seq):
                # set line_width depending on value
                line_width = narrow if char == "n" else wide

                # draw every second value, the other is represented by space
                if bar_index % 2 == 0:
                    self.rect(x, y, line_width, h, "F")

                x += line_width

    @check_page
    def code39(self, txt, x, y, w=1.5, h=5):
        """Barcode 3of9"""
        dim = {"w": w, "n": w / 3}
        if not txt.startswith("*") or not txt.endswith("*"):
            warnings.warn(
                "Code 39 input must start and end with a '*' character to be valid."
                " This method does not insert it automatically."
            )
        chars = {
            "0": "nnnwwnwnn",
            "1": "wnnwnnnnw",
            "2": "nnwwnnnnw",
            "3": "wnwwnnnnn",
            "4": "nnnwwnnnw",
            "5": "wnnwwnnnn",
            "6": "nnwwwnnnn",
            "7": "nnnwnnwnw",
            "8": "wnnwnnwnn",
            "9": "nnwwnnwnn",
            "A": "wnnnnwnnw",
            "B": "nnwnnwnnw",
            "C": "wnwnnwnnn",
            "D": "nnnnwwnnw",
            "E": "wnnnwwnnn",
            "F": "nnwnwwnnn",
            "G": "nnnnnwwnw",
            "H": "wnnnnwwnn",
            "I": "nnwnnwwnn",
            "J": "nnnnwwwnn",
            "K": "wnnnnnnww",
            "L": "nnwnnnnww",
            "M": "wnwnnnnwn",
            "N": "nnnnwnnww",
            "O": "wnnnwnnwn",
            "P": "nnwnwnnwn",
            "Q": "nnnnnnwww",
            "R": "wnnnnnwwn",
            "S": "nnwnnnwwn",
            "T": "nnnnwnwwn",
            "U": "wwnnnnnnw",
            "V": "nwwnnnnnw",
            "W": "wwwnnnnnn",
            "X": "nwnnwnnnw",
            "Y": "wwnnwnnnn",
            "Z": "nwwnwnnnn",
            "-": "nwnnnnwnw",
            ".": "wwnnnnwnn",
            " ": "nwwnnnwnn",
            "*": "nwnnwnwnn",
            "$": "nwnwnwnnn",
            "/": "nwnwnnnwn",
            "+": "nwnnnwnwn",
            "%": "nnnwnwnwn",
        }
        # The caller should do this, or we can't rotate the thing.
        # self.set_fill_color(0)
        for c in txt.upper():
            if c not in chars:
                raise RuntimeError(f'Invalid char "{c}" for Code39')
            for i, d in enumerate(chars[c]):
                if i % 2 == 0:
                    self.rect(x, y, dim[d], h, "F")
                x += dim[d]
            x += dim["n"]

    @check_page
    @contextmanager
    def rect_clip(self, x, y, w, h):
        """
        Context manager that defines a rectangular crop zone,
        useful to render only part of an image.

        Args:
            x (float): abscissa of the clipping region top left corner
            y (float): ordinate of the clipping region top left corner
            w (float): width of the clipping region
            h (float): height of the clipping region
        """
        self._out(
            (
                f"q {x * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - y - h) * self.k:.2f} {w * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{h * self.k:.2f} re W n"
            )
        )
        yield
        self._out("Q")

    @check_page
    @contextmanager
    def elliptic_clip(self, x, y, w, h):
        """
        Context manager that defines an elliptic crop zone,
        useful to render only part of an image.

        Args:
            x (float): abscissa of the clipping region top left corner
            y (float): ordinate of the clipping region top left corner
            w (float): ellipse width
            h (float): ellipse height
        """
        self._out("q")
        self._draw_ellipse(x, y, w, h, "W n")
        yield
        self._out("Q")

    @check_page
    @contextmanager
    def round_clip(self, x, y, r):
        """
        Context manager that defines a circular crop zone,
        useful to render only part of an image.

        Args:
            x (float): abscissa of the clipping region top left corner
            y (float): ordinate of the clipping region top left corner
            r (float): radius of the clipping region
        """
        with self.elliptic_clip(x, y, r, r):
            yield

    @contextmanager
    def unbreakable(self):
        """
        Ensures that all rendering performed in this context appear on a single page
        by performing page break beforehand if need be.

        Notes
        -----

        Using this method means to duplicate the FPDF `bytearray` buffer:
        when generating large PDFs, doubling memory usage may be troublesome.
        """
        prev_page, prev_y = self.page, self.y
        recorder = FPDFRecorder(self, accept_page_break=False)
        recorder.page_break_triggered = False
        self._in_unbreakable = True
        LOGGER.debug("Starting unbreakable block")
        yield recorder
        y_scroll = recorder.y - prev_y + (recorder.page - prev_page) * self.eph
        if prev_y + y_scroll > self.page_break_trigger or recorder.page > prev_page:
            LOGGER.debug("Performing page jump due to unbreakable height")
            recorder.rewind()
            # pylint: disable=protected-access
            # Performing this call through .pdf so that it does not get recorded & replayed:
            recorder.pdf._perform_page_break()
            recorder.replay()
            recorder.page_break_triggered = True
        self._in_unbreakable = False
        LOGGER.debug("Ending unbreakable block")

    @contextmanager
    def offset_rendering(self):
        """
        All rendering performed in this context is made on a dummy FPDF object.
        This allows to test the results of some operations on the global layout
        before performing them "for real".
        """
        prev_page, prev_y = self.page, self.y
        recorder = FPDFRecorder(self, accept_page_break=False)
        recorder.page_break_triggered = False
        yield recorder
        y_scroll = recorder.y - prev_y + (recorder.page - prev_page) * self.eph
        if prev_y + y_scroll > self.page_break_trigger or recorder.page > prev_page:
            recorder.page_break_triggered = True
        recorder.rewind()

    @check_page
    def insert_toc_placeholder(self, render_toc_function, pages=1):
        """
        Configure Table Of Contents rendering at the end of the document generation,
        and reserve some vertical space right now in order to insert it.

        Args:
            render_toc_function (function): a function that will be invoked to render the ToC.
                This function will receive 2 parameters: `pdf`, an instance of FPDF, and `outline`,
                a list of `OutlineSection`.
            pages (int): the number of pages that the Table of Contents will span,
                including the current one that will. As many page breaks as the value of this argument
                will occur immediately after calling this method.
        """
        if not callable(render_toc_function):
            raise TypeError(
                f"The first argument must be a callable, got: {type(render_toc_function)}"
            )
        if self._toc_placeholder:
            raise FPDFException(
                "A placeholder for the table of contents has already been defined"
                f" on page {self._toc_placeholder.start_page}"
            )
        self._toc_placeholder = ToCPlaceholder(
            render_toc_function, self.page, self.y, pages
        )
        for _ in range(pages):
            self.add_page()

    def set_section_title_styles(
        self,
        level0,
        level1=None,
        level2=None,
        level3=None,
        level4=None,
        level5=None,
        level6=None,
    ):
        """
        Defines a style for section titles.
        After calling this method, calls to `FPDF.start_section` will render section names visually.

        Args:
            level0 (TitleStyle): style for the top level section titles
            level1 (TitleStyle): optional style for the level 1 section titles
            level2 (TitleStyle): optional style for the level 2 section titles
            level3 (TitleStyle): optional style for the level 3 section titles
            level4 (TitleStyle): optional style for the level 4 section titles
            level5 (TitleStyle): optional style for the level 5 section titles
            level6 (TitleStyle): optional style for the level 6 section titles
        """
        for level in (level0, level1, level2, level3, level4, level5, level6):
            if level and not isinstance(level, TitleStyle):
                raise TypeError(
                    f"Arguments must all be TitleStyle instances, got: {type(level)}"
                )
        self.section_title_styles = {
            0: level0,
            1: level1,
            2: level2,
            3: level3,
            4: level4,
            5: level5,
            6: level6,
        }

    @check_page
    def start_section(self, name, level=0, strict=True):
        """
        Start a section in the document outline.
        If section_title_styles have been configured,
        render the section name visually as a title.

        Args:
            name (str): section name
            level (int): section level in the document outline. 0 means top-level.
        """
        if level < 0:
            raise ValueError('"level" mut be equal or greater than zero')
        if strict and self._outline and level > self._outline[-1].level + 1:
            raise ValueError(
                f"Incoherent hierarchy: cannot start a level {level} section after a level {self._outline[-1].level} one"
            )
        dest = DestinationXYZ(self.page, top=self.h_pt - self.y * self.k)
        outline_struct_elem = None
        if self.section_title_styles:
            # We first check if adding this multi-cell will trigger a page break:
            with self.offset_rendering() as pdf:
                # pylint: disable=protected-access
                with pdf._apply_style(pdf.section_title_styles[level]):
                    pdf.multi_cell(
                        w=pdf.epw,
                        h=pdf.font_size,
                        txt=name,
                        new_x=XPos.LMARGIN,
                        new_y=YPos.NEXT,
                    )
            if pdf.page_break_triggered:
                # If so, we trigger a page break manually beforehand:
                self.add_page()
            with self._marked_sequence(title=name) as struct_elem:
                outline_struct_elem = struct_elem
                with self._apply_style(self.section_title_styles[level]):
                    self.multi_cell(
                        w=self.epw,
                        h=self.font_size,
                        txt=name,
                        new_x=XPos.LMARGIN,
                        new_y=YPos.NEXT,
                    )
        self._outline.append(
            OutlineSection(name, level, self.page, dest, outline_struct_elem)
        )

    @contextmanager
    def _apply_style(self, title_style):
        prev_font = (self.font_family, self.font_style, self.font_size_pt)
        self.set_font(
            title_style.font_family, title_style.font_style, title_style.font_size_pt
        )
        prev_text_color = self.text_color
        if title_style.color is not None:
            if isinstance(title_style.color, Sequence):
                self.set_text_color(*title_style.color)
            else:
                self.set_text_color(title_style.color)
        prev_underline = self.underline
        self.underline = title_style.underline
        if title_style.t_margin:
            self.ln(title_style.t_margin)
        if title_style.l_margin:
            self.set_x(title_style.l_margin)
        yield
        if title_style.b_margin:
            self.ln(title_style.b_margin)
        self.set_font(*prev_font)
        self.text_color = prev_text_color
        self.underline = prev_underline

    def output(
        self, name="", dest="", linearize=False, output_producer_class=OutputProducer
    ):
        """
        Output PDF to some destination.
        The method first calls [close](close.md) if necessary to terminate the document.
        After calling this method, content cannot be added to the document anymore.

        By default the bytearray buffer is returned.
        If a `name` is given, the PDF is written to a new file.

        Args:
            name (str): optional File object or file path where to save the PDF under
            dest (str): [**DEPRECATED since 2.3.0**] unused, will be removed in a later version
            output_producer_class (class): use a custom class for PDF file generation
        """
        if dest:
            warnings.warn(
                '"dest" parameter is deprecated, unused and will soon be removed',
                DeprecationWarning,
                stacklevel=2,
            )
        # Finish document if necessary:
        if not self.buffer:
            if self.page == 0:
                self.add_page()
            # Generating final page footer:
            self.in_footer = True
            self.footer()
            self.in_footer = False
            # Generating .buffer based on .pages:
            if self._toc_placeholder:
                self._insert_table_of_contents()
            if self.str_alias_nb_pages:
                self._substitute_page_number()
            if linearize:
                output_producer_class = LinearizedOutputProducer
            output_producer = output_producer_class(self)
            self.buffer = output_producer.bufferize()
        if name:
            if isinstance(name, os.PathLike):
                name.write_bytes(self.buffer)
            elif isinstance(name, str):
                Path(name).write_bytes(self.buffer)
            else:
                name.write(self.buffer)
            return None
        return self.buffer


def _is_svg(bytes):
    return bytes.startswith(b"<?xml ") or bytes.startswith(b"<svg ")


sys.modules[__name__].__class__ = WarnOnDeprecatedModuleAttributes


__pdoc__ = {"FPDF.add_highlight": False}  # Replaced by FPDF.highlight

__all__ = [
    "FPDF",
    "XPos",
    "YPos",
    "get_page_format",
    "TextMode",
    "TitleStyle",
    "PAGE_FORMATS",
]

Global variables

var PAGE_FORMATS

Supported page format names & dimensions

Functions

def get_page_format(format, k=None)

Return page width and height size in points.

Throws FPDFPageFormatException

format can be either a 2-tuple or one of 'a3', 'a4', 'a5', 'letter', or 'legal'.

If format is a tuple, then the return value is the tuple's values given in the units specified on this document in the constructor, multiplied by the corresponding scale factor k, taken from instance variable self.k.

If format is a string, the (width, height) tuple returned is in points. For a width and height of 8.5 * 11, 72 dpi is assumed, so the value returned is (8.5 * 72, 11 * 72), or (612, 792). Additional formats can be added by adding fields to the PAGE_FORMATS dictionary with a case insensitive key (the name of the new format) and 2-tuple value of (width, height) in dots per inch with a 72 dpi resolution.

Expand source code
def get_page_format(format, k=None):
    """Return page width and height size in points.

    Throws FPDFPageFormatException

    `format` can be either a 2-tuple or one of 'a3', 'a4', 'a5', 'letter', or
    'legal'.

    If format is a tuple, then the return value is the tuple's values
    given in the units specified on this document in the constructor,
    multiplied by the corresponding scale factor `k`, taken from instance
    variable `self.k`.

    If format is a string, the (width, height) tuple returned is in points.
    For a width and height of 8.5 * 11, 72 dpi is assumed, so the value
    returned is (8.5 * 72, 11 * 72), or (612, 792). Additional formats can be
    added by adding fields to the `PAGE_FORMATS` dictionary with a
    case insensitive key (the name of the new format) and 2-tuple value of
    (width, height) in dots per inch with a 72 dpi resolution.
    """
    if isinstance(format, str):
        format = format.lower()
        if format in PAGE_FORMATS:
            return PAGE_FORMATS[format]
        raise FPDFPageFormatException(format, unknown=True)

    if k is None:
        raise FPDFPageFormatException(format, one=True)

    try:
        return format[0] * k, format[1] * k
    except Exception as e:
        args = f"{format}, {k}"
        raise FPDFPageFormatException(f"Arguments must be numbers: {args}") from e

Classes

class FPDF (orientation='portrait', unit='mm', format='A4', font_cache_dir='DEPRECATED')

PDF Generation class

Args

orientation : str
possible values are "portrait" (can be abbreviated "P") or "landscape" (can be abbreviated "L"). Default to "portrait".
unit : str, int, float
possible values are "pt", "mm", "cm", "in", or a number. A point equals 1/72 of an inch, that is to say about 0.35 mm (an inch being 2.54 cm). This is a very common unit in typography; font sizes are expressed in this unit. If given a number, then it will be treated as the number of points per unit. (eg. 72 = 1 in) Default to "mm".
format : str
possible values are "a3", "a4", "a5", "letter", "legal" or a tuple (width, height) expressed in the given unit. Default to "a4".
font_cache_dir : Path or str
[DEPRECATED since v2.5.1] unused
Expand source code
class FPDF(GraphicsStateMixin):
    "PDF Generation class"
    MARKDOWN_BOLD_MARKER = "**"
    MARKDOWN_ITALICS_MARKER = "__"
    MARKDOWN_UNDERLINE_MARKER = "--"
    MARKDOWN_LINK_REGEX = re.compile(r"^\[([^][]+)\]\(([^()]+)\)(.*)$")
    MARKDOWN_LINK_COLOR = None

    HTML2FPDF_CLASS = HTML2FPDF

    def __init__(
        self,
        orientation="portrait",
        unit="mm",
        format="A4",
        font_cache_dir="DEPRECATED",
    ):
        """
        Args:
            orientation (str): possible values are "portrait" (can be abbreviated "P")
                or "landscape" (can be abbreviated "L"). Default to "portrait".
            unit (str, int, float): possible values are "pt", "mm", "cm", "in", or a number.
                A point equals 1/72 of an inch, that is to say about 0.35 mm (an inch being 2.54 cm).
                This is a very common unit in typography; font sizes are expressed in this unit.
                If given a number, then it will be treated as the number of points per unit.  (eg. 72 = 1 in)
                Default to "mm".
            format (str): possible values are "a3", "a4", "a5", "letter", "legal" or a tuple
                (width, height) expressed in the given unit. Default to "a4".
            font_cache_dir (Path or str): [**DEPRECATED since v2.5.1**] unused
        """
        if font_cache_dir != "DEPRECATED":
            warnings.warn(
                '"font_cache_dir" parameter is deprecated, unused and will soon be removed',
                DeprecationWarning,
                stacklevel=2,
            )
        super().__init__()
        self.page = 0  # current page number
        self.pages = {}  # array of PDFPage objects starting at index 1
        self.fonts = {}  # map font string keys to dicts describing the fonts used
        self.images = {}  # map image identifiers to dicts describing the images
        self.links = {}  # array of Destination objects starting at index 1
        self.embedded_files = []  # array of PDFEmbeddedFile

        self.in_footer = False  # flag set while rendering footer
        # indicates that we are inside an .unbreakable() code block:
        self._in_unbreakable = False
        self._lasth = 0  # height of last cell printed
        self.str_alias_nb_pages = "{nb}"

        self._angle = 0  # used by deprecated method: rotate()
        self.xmp_metadata = None
        # Define the compression algorithm used when embedding images:
        self.image_filter = "AUTO"
        self.page_duration = 0  # optional pages display duration, cf. add_page()
        self.page_transition = None  # optional pages transition, cf. add_page()
        self.allow_images_transparency = True
        # Do nothing by default. Allowed values: 'WARN', 'DOWNSCALE':
        self.oversized_images = None
        self.oversized_images_ratio = 2  # number of pixels per UserSpace point
        self.struct_builder = StructureTreeBuilder()
        self._toc_placeholder = None  # optional ToCPlaceholder instance
        self._outline = []  # list of OutlineSection
        self._sign_key = None
        self.section_title_styles = {}  # level -> TitleStyle

        # Standard fonts
        self.core_fonts = {
            "courier": "Courier",
            "courierB": "Courier-Bold",
            "courierI": "Courier-Oblique",
            "courierBI": "Courier-BoldOblique",
            "helvetica": "Helvetica",
            "helveticaB": "Helvetica-Bold",
            "helveticaI": "Helvetica-Oblique",
            "helveticaBI": "Helvetica-BoldOblique",
            "times": "Times-Roman",
            "timesB": "Times-Bold",
            "timesI": "Times-Italic",
            "timesBI": "Times-BoldItalic",
            "symbol": "Symbol",
            "zapfdingbats": "ZapfDingbats",
        }
        self.core_fonts_encoding = "latin-1"
        "Font encoding, Latin-1 by default"
        # Replace these fonts with these core fonts
        self.font_aliases = {
            "arial": "helvetica",
            "couriernew": "courier",
            "timesnewroman": "times",
        }
        # Scale factor
        self.k = get_scale_factor(unit)

        # Graphics state variables defined as properties by GraphicsStateMixin.
        # We set their default values here.
        self.font_family = ""  # current font family
        self.font_style = ""  # current font style
        self.font_size_pt = 12  # current font size in points
        self.font_stretching = 100  # current font stretching
        self.char_spacing = 0  # current character spacing
        self.underline = False  # underlining flag
        self.current_font = {}  # current font
        self.draw_color = self.DEFAULT_DRAW_COLOR
        self.fill_color = self.DEFAULT_FILL_COLOR
        self.text_color = self.DEFAULT_TEXT_COLOR
        self.page_background = None
        self.dash_pattern = dict(dash=0, gap=0, phase=0)
        self.line_width = 0.567 / self.k  # line width (0.2 mm)
        self.text_mode = TextMode.FILL
        # end of grapics state variables

        self.dw_pt, self.dh_pt = get_page_format(format, self.k)
        self._set_orientation(orientation, self.dw_pt, self.dh_pt)
        self.def_orientation = self.cur_orientation
        # Page spacing
        # Page margins (1 cm)
        margin = (7200 / 254) / self.k
        self.x, self.y, self.l_margin, self.t_margin = 0, 0, 0, 0
        self.set_margins(margin, margin)
        self.x, self.y = self.l_margin, self.t_margin
        self.c_margin = margin / 10.0  # Interior cell margin (1 mm)
        # sets self.auto_page_break, self.b_margin & self.page_break_trigger:
        self.set_auto_page_break(True, 2 * margin)
        self.set_display_mode("fullwidth")  # Full width display mode
        self._page_mode = None
        self.viewer_preferences = None  # optional instance of ViewerPreferences
        self.compress = True  # switch enabling pages content compression
        self.pdf_version = "1.3"  # Set default PDF version No.
        self.creation_date = datetime.now(timezone.utc)
        self._security_handler = None

        self._current_draw_context = None
        self._drawing_graphics_state_registry = drawing.GraphicsStateDictRegistry()

        self._record_text_quad_points = False

        # page number -> array of 8 × n numbers:
        self._text_quad_points = defaultdict(list)

        # final buffer holding the PDF document in-memory - defined only after calling output():
        self.buffer = None

    def set_encryption(
        self,
        owner_password,
        user_password=None,
        encryption_method=EncryptionMethod.RC4,
        permissions=AccessPermission.all(),
        encrypt_metadata=False,
    ):
        """ "
        Activate encryption of the document content.

        Args:
            owner_password (str): mandatory. The owner password allows to perform any change on the document,
                including removing all encryption and access permissions.
            user_password (str): optional. If a user password is set, the content of the document will be encrypted
                and a password prompt displayed when a user opens the document.
                The document will only be displayed after either the user or owner password is entered.
            encryption_method (fpdf.enums.EncryptionMethod, str): algorithm to be used to encrypt the document.
                Defaults to RC4.
            permissions (fpdf.enums.AccessPermission): specify access permissions granted
                when the document is opened with user access. Defaults to ALL.
            encrypt_metadata (bool): whether to also encrypt document metadata (author, creation date, etc.).
                Defaults to False.
        """
        self._security_handler = StandardSecurityHandler(
            self,
            owner_password=owner_password,
            user_password=user_password,
            permission=permissions,
            encryption_method=encryption_method,
            encrypt_metadata=encrypt_metadata,
        )

    def write_html(self, text, *args, **kwargs):
        """
        Parse HTML and convert it to PDF.
        cf. https://pyfpdf.github.io/fpdf2/HTML.html
        """
        kwargs2 = vars(self)
        # Method arguments must override class & instance attributes:
        kwargs2.update(kwargs)
        html2pdf = self.HTML2FPDF_CLASS(self, *args, **kwargs2)
        text = unescape(text)  # To deal with HTML entities
        html2pdf.feed(text)

    def _set_min_pdf_version(self, version):
        self.pdf_version = max(self.pdf_version, version)

    @property
    def is_ttf_font(self):
        return self.current_font.get("type") == "TTF"

    @property
    def page_mode(self):
        return self._page_mode

    @page_mode.setter
    def page_mode(self, page_mode):
        self._page_mode = PageMode.coerce(page_mode)
        if self._page_mode == PageMode.USE_ATTACHMENTS:
            self._set_min_pdf_version("1.6")
        elif self._page_mode == PageMode.USE_OC:
            self._set_min_pdf_version("1.5")

    @property
    def epw(self):
        """
        Effective page width: the page width minus its horizontal margins.
        """
        return self.w - self.l_margin - self.r_margin

    @property
    def eph(self):
        """
        Effective page height: the page height minus its vertical margins.
        """
        return self.h - self.t_margin - self.b_margin

    @property
    def pages_count(self):
        """
        Returns the total pages of the document.
        """
        return len(self.pages)

    def set_margin(self, margin):
        """
        Sets the document right, left, top & bottom margins to the same value.

        Args:
            margin (float): margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
        """
        self.set_margins(margin, margin)
        self.set_auto_page_break(self.auto_page_break, margin)

    def set_margins(self, left, top, right=-1):
        """
        Sets the document left, top & optionaly right margins to the same value.
        By default, they equal 1 cm.
        Also sets the current FPDF.y on the page to this minimum vertical position.

        Args:
            left (float): left margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
            top (float): top margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
            right (float): optional right margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
        """
        self.set_left_margin(left)
        if self.y < top or self.y == self.t_margin:
            self.y = top
        self.t_margin = top
        if right == -1:
            right = left
        self.r_margin = right

    def set_left_margin(self, margin):
        """
        Sets the document left margin.
        Also sets the current FPDF.x on the page to this minimum horizontal position.

        Args:
            margin (float): margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
        """
        if self.x < margin or self.x == self.l_margin:
            self.x = margin
        self.l_margin = margin

    def set_top_margin(self, margin):
        """
        Sets the document top margin.

        Args:
            margin (float): margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
        """
        self.t_margin = margin

    def set_right_margin(self, margin):
        """
        Sets the document right margin.

        Args:
            margin (float): margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
        """
        self.r_margin = margin

    def set_auto_page_break(self, auto, margin=0):
        """
        Set auto page break mode and triggering bottom margin.
        By default, the mode is on and the bottom margin is 2 cm.

        Args:
            auto (bool): enable or disable this mode
            margin (float): optional bottom margin (distance from the bottom of the page)
                in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
        """
        self.auto_page_break = auto
        self.b_margin = margin
        self.page_break_trigger = self.h - self.b_margin

    @property
    def default_page_dimensions(self):
        "Return a pair (width, height) in the unit specified to FPDF constructor"
        return (
            (self.dw_pt, self.dh_pt)
            if self.def_orientation == "P"
            else (self.dh_pt, self.dw_pt)
        )

    def _set_orientation(self, orientation, page_width_pt, page_height_pt):
        orientation = orientation.lower()
        if orientation in ("p", "portrait"):
            self.cur_orientation = "P"
            self.w_pt = page_width_pt
            self.h_pt = page_height_pt
        elif orientation in ("l", "landscape"):
            self.cur_orientation = "L"
            self.w_pt = page_height_pt
            self.h_pt = page_width_pt
        else:
            raise FPDFException(f"Incorrect orientation: {orientation}")
        self.w = self.w_pt / self.k
        self.h = self.h_pt / self.k

    def set_display_mode(self, zoom, layout="continuous"):
        """
        Defines the way the document is to be displayed by the viewer.

        It allows to set the zoom level: pages can be displayed entirely on screen,
        occupy the full width of the window, use the real size,
        be scaled by a specific zooming factor or use the viewer default (configured in its Preferences menu).

        The page layout can also be specified: single page at a time, continuous display, two columns or viewer default.

        Args:
            zoom: either "fullpage", "fullwidth", "real", "default",
                or a number indicating the zooming factor to use, interpreted as a percentage.
                The zoom level set by default is "default".
            layout (fpdf.enums.PageLayout, str): allowed layout aliases are "single", "continuous", "two" or "default",
                meaning to use the viewer default mode.
                The layout set by default is "continuous".
        """
        if zoom in ZOOM_CONFIGS or not isinstance(zoom, str):
            self.zoom_mode = zoom
        elif zoom != "default":
            raise FPDFException(f"Incorrect zoom display mode: {zoom}")
        self.page_layout = LAYOUT_ALIASES.get(layout, layout)

    @property
    def page_layout(self):
        return self._page_layout

    @page_layout.setter
    def page_layout(self, page_layout):
        self._page_layout = PageLayout.coerce(page_layout) if page_layout else None
        if self._page_layout in (PageLayout.TWO_PAGE_LEFT, PageLayout.TWO_PAGE_RIGHT):
            self._set_min_pdf_version("1.5")

    def set_compression(self, compress):
        """
        Activates or deactivates page compression.

        When activated, the internal representation of each page is compressed
        using the zlib/deflate method (FlateDecode), which leads to a compression ratio
        of about 2 for the resulting document.

        Page compression is enabled by default.

        Args:
            compress (bool): indicates if compression should be enabled
        """
        self.compress = compress

    def set_title(self, title):
        """
        Defines the title of the document.

        Args:
            title (str): the title
        """
        self.title = title

    def set_lang(self, lang):
        """
        A language identifier specifying the natural language for all text in the document
        except where overridden by language specifications for structure elements or marked content.
        A language identifier can either be the empty text string, to indicate that the language is unknown,
        or a Language-Tag as defined in RFC 3066, "Tags for the Identification of Languages".

        Args:
            lang (str): the document main language
        """
        self.lang = lang
        if lang:
            self._set_min_pdf_version("1.4")

    def set_subject(self, subject):
        """
        Defines the subject of the document.

        Args:
            subject (str): the document main subject
        """
        self.subject = subject

    def set_author(self, author):
        """
        Defines the author of the document.

        Args:
            author(str): the name of the author
        """
        self.author = author

    def set_keywords(self, keywords):
        """
        Associate keywords with the document

        Args:
            keywords (str): a space-separated list of words
        """
        self.keywords = keywords

    def set_creator(self, creator):
        """
        Defines the creator of the document.
        This is typically the name of the application that generates the PDF.

        Args:
            creator (str): name of the PDF creator
        """
        self.creator = creator

    def set_producer(self, producer):
        """Producer of document"""
        self.producer = producer

    def set_creation_date(self, date=None):
        """Sets Creation of Date time, or current time if None given."""
        if self._sign_key:
            raise FPDFException(
                ".set_creation_date() must always be called before .sign*() methods"
            )
        if not isinstance(date, datetime):
            raise TypeError(f"date should be a datetime but is a {type(date)}")
        if not date.tzinfo:
            date = date.astimezone()
        self.creation_date = date

    def set_xmp_metadata(self, xmp_metadata):
        if "<?xpacket" in xmp_metadata[:50]:
            raise ValueError(
                "fpdf2 already performs XMP metadata wrapping in a <?xpacket> tag"
            )
        self.xmp_metadata = xmp_metadata
        if xmp_metadata:
            self._set_min_pdf_version("1.4")

    def set_doc_option(self, opt, value):
        """
        Defines a document option.

        Args:
            opt (str): name of the option to set
            value (str) option value

        .. deprecated:: 2.4.0
            Simply set the `FPDF.core_fonts_encoding` property as a replacement.
        """
        warnings.warn(
            "set_doc_option() is deprecated. "
            "Simply set the `.core_fonts_encoding` property as a replacement.",
            DeprecationWarning,
            stacklevel=2,
        )
        if opt != "core_fonts_encoding":
            raise FPDFException(f'Unknown document option "{opt}"')
        self.core_fonts_encoding = value

    def set_image_filter(self, image_filter):
        """
        Args:
            image_filter (str): name of a the image filter to use
                when embedding images in the document, or "AUTO",
                meaning to use the best image filter given the images provided.
                Allowed values: `FlateDecode` (lossless zlib/deflate compression),
                `DCTDecode` (lossy compression with JPEG)
                and `JPXDecode` (lossy compression with JPEG2000).
        """
        if image_filter not in SUPPORTED_IMAGE_FILTERS:
            raise ValueError(
                f"'{image_filter}' is not a supported image filter"
                f" - Allowed values: {''.join(SUPPORTED_IMAGE_FILTERS)}"
            )
        self.image_filter = image_filter
        if image_filter == "JPXDecode":
            self._set_min_pdf_version("1.5")

    def alias_nb_pages(self, alias="{nb}"):
        """
        Defines an alias for the total number of pages.
        It will be substituted as the document is closed.

        This is useful to insert the number of pages of the document
        at a time when this number is not known by the program.

        This substitution can be disabled for performances reasons, by calling `alias_nb_pages(None)`.

        Args:
            alias (str): the alias. Defaults to "{nb}".

        Notes
        -----

        When using this feature with the `FPDF.cell` / `FPDF.multi_cell` methods,
        or the `.underline` attribute of `FPDF` class,
        the width of the text rendered will take into account the alias length,
        not the length of the "actual number of pages" string,
        which can causes slight positioning differences.
        """
        self.str_alias_nb_pages = alias

    def add_page(
        self, orientation="", format="", same=False, duration=0, transition=None
    ):
        """
        Adds a new page to the document.
        If a page is already present, the `FPDF.footer()` method is called first.
        Then the page  is added, the current position is set to the top-left corner,
        with respect to the left and top margins, and the `FPDF.header()` method is called.

        Args:
            orientation (str): "portrait" (can be abbreviated "P")
                or "landscape" (can be abbreviated "L"). Default to "portrait".
            format (str): "a3", "a4", "a5", "letter", "legal" or a tuple
                (width, height). Default to "a4".
            same (bool): indicates to use the same page format as the previous page.
                Default to False.
            duration (float): optional page’s display duration, i.e. the maximum length of time,
                in seconds, that the page is displayed in presentation mode,
                before the viewer application automatically advances to the next page.
                Can be configured globally through the `.page_duration` FPDF property.
                As of june 2021, onored by Adobe Acrobat reader, but ignored by Sumatra PDF reader.
            transition (Transition child class): optional visual transition to use when moving
                from another page to the given page during a presentation.
                Can be configured globally through the `.page_transition` FPDF property.
                As of june 2021, onored by Adobe Acrobat reader, but ignored by Sumatra PDF reader.
        """
        if self.buffer:
            raise FPDFException(
                "A page cannot be added on a closed document, after calling output()"
            )
        family = self.font_family
        style = f"{self.font_style}U" if self.underline else self.font_style
        size = self.font_size_pt
        lw = self.line_width
        dc = self.draw_color
        fc = self.fill_color
        tc = self.text_color
        stretching = self.font_stretching
        char_spacing = self.char_spacing

        if self.page > 0:
            # Page footer
            self.in_footer = True
            self.footer()
            self.in_footer = False

        # Start new page
        self._beginpage(
            orientation,
            format,
            same,
            duration or self.page_duration,
            transition or self.page_transition,
            new_page=not self._has_next_page(),
        )

        if self.page_background:
            if isinstance(self.page_background, tuple):
                self.set_fill_color(*self.page_background)
                self.rect(0, 0, self.w, self.h, style="F")
                self.set_fill_color(*(255 * v for v in fc.colors))
            else:
                self.image(self.page_background, 0, 0, self.w, self.h)

        self._out("2 J")  # Set line cap style to square
        self.line_width = lw  # Set line width
        self._out(f"{lw * self.k:.2f} w")

        # Set font
        if family:
            self.set_font(family, style, size)

        # Set colors
        self.draw_color = dc
        if dc != self.DEFAULT_DRAW_COLOR:
            self._out(dc.serialize().upper())
        self.fill_color = fc
        if fc != self.DEFAULT_FILL_COLOR:
            self._out(fc.serialize().lower())
        self.text_color = tc

        # BEGIN Page header
        self.header()

        if self.line_width != lw:  # Restore line width
            self.line_width = lw
            self._out(f"{lw * self.k:.2f} w")

        if family:
            self.set_font(family, style, size)  # Restore font

        if self.draw_color != dc:  # Restore colors
            self.draw_color = dc
            self._out(dc.serialize().upper())
        if self.fill_color != fc:
            self.fill_color = fc
            self._out(fc.serialize().lower())
        self.text_color = tc

        if stretching != 100:  # Restore stretching
            self.set_stretching(stretching)
        if char_spacing != 0:
            self.set_char_spacing(char_spacing)
        # END Page header

    def _beginpage(
        self, orientation, format, same, duration, transition, new_page=True
    ):
        self.page += 1
        if new_page:
            page = PDFPage(
                contents=bytearray(),
                duration=duration,
                transition=transition,
                index=self.page,
            )
            self.pages[self.page] = page
            if transition:
                self._set_min_pdf_version("1.5")
        else:
            page = self.pages[self.page]
        self.x = self.l_margin
        self.y = self.t_margin
        self.font_family = ""
        self.font_stretching = 100
        self.char_spacing = 0
        if same:
            if orientation or format:
                raise ValueError(
                    f"Inconsistent parameters: same={same} but orientation={orientation} format={format}"
                )
        else:
            # Set page format if provided, else use default value:
            page_width_pt, page_height_pt = (
                get_page_format(format, self.k) if format else (self.dw_pt, self.dh_pt)
            )
            self._set_orientation(
                orientation or self.def_orientation, page_width_pt, page_height_pt
            )
            self.page_break_trigger = self.h - self.b_margin
        page.set_dimensions(self.w_pt, self.h_pt)

    def header(self):
        """
        Header to be implemented in your own inherited class

        This is automatically called by `FPDF.add_page()`
        and should not be called directly by the user application.
        The default implementation performs nothing: you have to override this method
        in a subclass to implement your own rendering logic.
        """

    def footer(self):
        """
        Footer to be implemented in your own inherited class.

        This is automatically called by `FPDF.add_page()` and `FPDF.close()`
        and should not be called directly by the user application.
        The default implementation performs nothing: you have to override this method
        in a subclass to implement your own rendering logic.
        """

    def page_no(self):
        """Get the current page number"""
        return self.page

    def set_draw_color(self, r, g=-1, b=-1):
        """
        Defines the color used for all stroking operations (lines, rectangles and cell borders).
        It can be expressed in RGB components or grey scale.
        The method can be called before the first page is created and the value is retained from page to page.

        Args:
            r (int): if `g` and `b` are given, this indicates the red component.
                Else, this indicates the grey level. The value must be between 0 and 255.
            g (int): green component (between 0 and 255)
            b (int): blue component (between 0 and 255)
        """
        if (r == 0 and g == 0 and b == 0) or g == -1:
            self.draw_color = drawing.DeviceGray(r / 255)
        else:
            self.draw_color = drawing.DeviceRGB(r / 255, g / 255, b / 255)
        if self.page > 0:
            self._out(self.draw_color.serialize().upper())

    def set_fill_color(self, r, g=-1, b=-1):
        """
        Defines the color used for all filling operations (filled rectangles and cell backgrounds).
        It can be expressed in RGB components or grey scale.
        The method can be called before the first page is created and the value is retained from page to page.

        Args:
            r (int): if `g` and `b` are given, this indicates the red component.
                Else, this indicates the grey level. The value must be between 0 and 255.
            g (int): green component (between 0 and 255)
            b (int): blue component (between 0 and 255)
        """
        if (r == 0 and g == 0 and b == 0) or g == -1:
            self.fill_color = drawing.DeviceGray(r / 255)
        else:
            self.fill_color = drawing.DeviceRGB(r / 255, g / 255, b / 255)
        if self.page > 0:
            self._out(self.fill_color.serialize().lower())

    def set_text_color(self, r, g=-1, b=-1):
        """
        Defines the color used for text.
        It can be expressed in RGB components or grey scale.
        The method can be called before the first page is created and the value is retained from page to page.

        Args:
            r (int): if `g` and `b` are given, this indicates the red component.
                Else, this indicates the grey level. The value must be between 0 and 255.
            g (int): green component (between 0 and 255)
            b (int): blue component (between 0 and 255)
        """
        if (r == 0 and g == 0 and b == 0) or g == -1:
            self.text_color = drawing.DeviceGray(r / 255)
        else:
            self.text_color = drawing.DeviceRGB(r / 255, g / 255, b / 255)

    def get_string_width(self, s, normalized=False, markdown=False):
        """
        Returns the length of a string in user unit. A font must be selected.
        The value is calculated with stretching and spacing.

        Args:
            s (str): the string whose length is to be computed.
            normalized (bool): whether normalization needs to be performed on the input string.
            markdown (bool): indicates if basic markdown support is enabled
        """
        # normalized is parameter for internal use
        s = s if normalized else self.normalize_text(s)
        w = 0
        for frag in (
            self._markdown_parse(s)
            if markdown
            else (Fragment(s, self._get_current_graphics_state(), self.k),)
        ):
            w += frag.get_width()
        return w

    def set_line_width(self, width):
        """
        Defines the line width of all stroking operations (lines, rectangles and cell borders).
        By default, the value equals 0.2 mm.
        The method can be called before the first page is created and the value is retained from page to page.

        Args:
            width (float): the width in user unit
        """
        self.line_width = width
        if self.page > 0:
            self._out(f"{width * self.k:.2f} w")

    def set_page_background(self, background):
        """
        Sets a background color or image to be drawn every time `FPDF.add_page()` is called, or removes a previously set background.
        The method can be called before the first page is created and the value is retained from page to page.

        Args:
            background: either a string representing a file path or URL to an image,
                an io.BytesIO containg an image as bytes, an instance of `PIL.Image.Image`, drawing.DeviceRGB
                or a RGB tuple representing a color to fill the background with or `None` to remove the background
        """

        if isinstance(
            background, (str, io.BytesIO, Image, drawing.DeviceRGB, tuple, type(None))
        ):
            if isinstance(background, drawing.DeviceRGB):
                self.page_background = tuple(255 * v for v in background.colors)
            else:
                self.page_background = background
        else:
            raise TypeError(
                f"""background must be of type str, io.BytesIO, PIL.Image.Image, drawing.DeviceRGB, tuple or None
        got: {type(background)}"""
            )

    @contextmanager
    @check_page
    def drawing_context(self, debug_stream=None):
        """
        Create a context for drawing paths on the current page.

        If this context manager is called again inside of an active context, it will
        raise an exception, as base drawing contexts cannot be nested.

        Args:
            debug_stream (TextIO): print a pretty tree of all items to be rendered
                to the provided stream. To store the output in a string, use
                `io.StringIO`.
        """

        if self._current_draw_context is not None:
            raise FPDFException(
                "cannot create a drawing context while one is already open"
            )

        context = drawing.DrawingContext()
        self._current_draw_context = context
        try:
            yield context
        finally:
            self._current_draw_context = None

        starting_style = self._current_graphic_style()
        render_args = (
            self._drawing_graphics_state_registry,
            drawing.Point(self.x, self.y),
            self.k,
            self.h,
            starting_style,
        )

        if debug_stream:
            rendered = context.render_debug(*render_args, debug_stream)
        else:
            rendered = context.render(*render_args)

        self._out(rendered)
        # The drawing API makes use of features (notably transparency and blending modes) that were introduced in PDF 1.4:
        self._set_min_pdf_version("1.4")

    def _current_graphic_style(self):
        gs = drawing.GraphicsStyle()
        gs.allow_transparency = self.allow_images_transparency

        # This initial stroke_width is ignored when embedding SVGs,
        # as the value in SVGObject.convert_graphics() takes precedence,
        # so this probably creates an unnecessary PDF dict entry:
        gs.stroke_width = self.line_width

        if self.draw_color != self.DEFAULT_DRAW_COLOR:
            gs.stroke_color = self.draw_color
        if self.fill_color != self.DEFAULT_FILL_COLOR:
            gs.fill_color = self.fill_color

        dash_info = self.dash_pattern
        dash_pattern = (dash_info["dash"], dash_info["gap"])
        if (dash_pattern[0] == 0) or (dash_pattern[1] == 0):
            dash_pattern = None

        gs.stroke_dash_pattern = dash_pattern
        gs.stroke_dash_phase = dash_info["phase"]

        return gs

    @contextmanager
    def new_path(self, x=0, y=0, paint_rule=PathPaintRule.AUTO, debug_stream=None):
        """
        Create a path for appending lines and curves to.

        Args:
            x (float): Abscissa of the path starting point
            y (float): Ordinate of the path starting point
            paint_rule (PathPaintRule): Optional choice of how the path should
                be painted. The default (AUTO) automatically selects stroke/fill based
                on the path style settings.
            debug_stream (TextIO): print a pretty tree of all items to be rendered
                to the provided stream. To store the output in a string, use
                `io.StringIO`.

        """
        with self.drawing_context(debug_stream=debug_stream) as ctxt:
            path = drawing.PaintedPath(x=x, y=y)
            path.style.paint_rule = paint_rule
            yield path
            ctxt.add_item(path)

    def draw_path(self, path, debug_stream=None):
        """
        Add a pre-constructed path to the document.

        Args:
            path (drawing.PaintedPath): the path to be drawn.
            debug_stream (TextIO): print a pretty tree of all items to be rendered
                to the provided stream. To store the output in a string, use
                `io.StringIO`.
        """
        with self.drawing_context(debug_stream=debug_stream) as ctxt:
            ctxt.add_item(path)

    def set_dash_pattern(self, dash=0, gap=0, phase=0):
        """
        Set the current dash pattern for lines and curves.

        Args:
            dash (float >= 0):
                The length of the dashes in current units.

            gap (float >= 0):
                The length of the gaps between dashes in current units.
                If omitted, the dash length will be used.

            phase (float >= 0):
                Where in the sequence to start drawing.

        Omitting 'dash' (= 0) resets the pattern to a solid line.
        """
        if not (isinstance(dash, (int, float)) and dash >= 0):
            raise ValueError("Dash length must be zero or a positive number.")
        if not (isinstance(gap, (int, float)) and gap >= 0):
            raise ValueError("gap length must be zero or a positive number.")
        if not (isinstance(phase, (int, float)) and phase >= 0):
            raise ValueError("Phase must be zero or a positive number.")

        pattern = dict(dash=dash, gap=gap, phase=phase)

        if pattern != self.dash_pattern:
            self.dash_pattern = pattern

            if dash:
                if gap:
                    dstr = f"[{dash * self.k:.3f} {gap * self.k:.3f}] {phase *self.k:.3f} d"
                else:
                    dstr = f"[{dash * self.k:.3f}] {phase *self.k:.3f} d"
            else:
                dstr = "[] 0 d"

            self._out(dstr)

    @check_page
    def line(self, x1, y1, x2, y2):
        """
        Draw a line between two points.

        Args:
            x1 (float): Abscissa of first point
            y1 (float): Ordinate of first point
            x2 (float): Abscissa of second point
            y2 (float): Ordinate of second point
        """
        self._out(
            f"{x1 * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - y1) * self.k:.2f} m {x2 * self.k:.2f} "
            f"{(self.h - y2) * self.k:.2f} l S"
        )

    @check_page
    def polyline(self, point_list, fill=False, polygon=False, style=None):
        """
        Draws lines between two or more points.

        Args:
            point_list (list of tuples): List of Abscissa and Ordinate of
                                        segments that should be drawn
            fill (bool): [**DEPRECATED since v2.5.4**] Use `style="F"` or `style="DF"` instead
            polygon (bool): If true, close path before stroking, to fill the inside of the polyline
            style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:

            * `D` or None: draw border. This is the default value.
            * `F`: fill
            * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
        """
        if fill:
            warnings.warn(
                '"fill" parameter is deprecated, use style="F" or style="DF" instead',
                DeprecationWarning,
                stacklevel=5 if polygon else 3,
            )
        if fill and style is None:
            style = RenderStyle.DF
        else:
            style = RenderStyle.coerce(style)
            if fill and style == RenderStyle.D:
                raise ValueError(
                    f"Conflicting values provided: fill={fill} & style={style}"
                )
        operator = "m"
        for point in point_list:
            self._out(
                f"{point[0] * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - point[1]) * self.k:.2f} {operator}"
            )
            operator = "l"
        if polygon:
            self._out(" h")
        self._out(f" {style.operator}")

    @check_page
    def polygon(self, point_list, fill=False, style=None):
        """
        Outputs a polygon defined by three or more points.

        Args:
            point_list (list of tuples): List of coordinates defining the polygon to draw
            fill (bool): [**DEPRECATED since v2.5.4**] Use `style="F"` or `style="DF"` instead
            style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:

            * `D` or None: draw border. This is the default value.
            * `F`: fill
            * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
        """
        self.polyline(point_list, fill=fill, polygon=True, style=style)

    @check_page
    def dashed_line(self, x1, y1, x2, y2, dash_length=1, space_length=1):
        """
        Draw a dashed line between two points.

        Args:
            x1 (float): Abscissa of first point
            y1 (float): Ordinate of first point
            x2 (float): Abscissa of second point
            y2 (float): Ordinate of second point
            dash_length (float): Length of the dash
            space_length (float): Length of the space between 2 dashes

        .. deprecated:: 2.4.6
            Use `FPDF.set_dash_pattern()` and the normal drawing operations instead.
        """
        warnings.warn(
            "dashed_line() is deprecated, and will be removed in a future release. "
            "Use set_dash_pattern() and the normal drawing operations instead.",
            DeprecationWarning,
            stacklevel=3,
        )
        self.set_dash_pattern(dash_length, space_length)
        self.line(x1, y1, x2, y2)
        self.set_dash_pattern()

    @check_page
    def rect(self, x, y, w, h, style=None, round_corners=False, corner_radius=0):
        """
        Outputs a rectangle.
        It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

        Args:
            x (float): Abscissa of upper-left bounding box.
            y (float): Ordinate of upper-left bounding box.
            w (float): Width.
            h (float): Height.

            style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:

            * `D` or empty string: draw border. This is the default value.
            * `F`: fill
            * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill

            round_corners (tuple of str, tuple of fpdf.enums.Corner, bool): Optional draw a rectangle with round corners.
            Possible values are:

            *`TOP_LEFT`: a rectangle with round top left corner
            *`TOP_RIGHT`: a rectangle with round top right corner
            *`BOTTOM_LEFT`: a rectangle with round bottom left corner
            *`BOTTOM_RIGHT`: a rectangle with round bottom right corner
            *`True`: a rectangle with all round corners
            *`False`: a rectangle with no round corners

            corner_radius: Optional radius of the corners
        """

        style = RenderStyle.coerce(style)
        if round_corners is not False:
            self._draw_rounded_rect(x, y, w, h, style, round_corners, corner_radius)
        else:
            self._out(
                f"{x * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - y) * self.k:.2f} {w * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{-h * self.k:.2f} re {style.operator}"
            )

    def _draw_rounded_rect(self, x, y, w, h, style, round_corners, r):
        min = h
        if w < h:
            min = w

        if r == 0:
            r = min / 5

        if r >= min / 2:
            r /= min

        point_1 = point_8 = (x, y)
        point_2 = point_3 = (x + w, y)
        point_4 = point_5 = (x + w, y + h)
        point_6 = point_7 = (x, y + h)
        coor_x = [x, x + w, x, x + w]
        coor_y = [y, y, y + h, y + h]

        if round_corners is True:
            round_corners = [
                Corner.TOP_RIGHT.value,
                Corner.TOP_LEFT.value,
                Corner.BOTTOM_RIGHT.value,
                Corner.BOTTOM_LEFT.value,
            ]
        round_corners = tuple(Corner.coerce(rc) for rc in round_corners)

        if Corner.TOP_RIGHT in round_corners:
            self.arc(coor_x[0], coor_y[0], 2 * r, 180, 270, style=style)
            point_1 = (x + r, y)
            point_8 = (x, y + r)

        if Corner.TOP_LEFT in round_corners:
            self.arc(coor_x[1] - 2 * r, coor_y[1], 2 * r, 270, 0, style=style)
            point_2 = (x + w - r, y)
            point_3 = (x + w, y + r)

        if Corner.BOTTOM_LEFT in round_corners:
            self.arc(coor_x[3] - 2 * r, coor_y[3] - 2 * r, 2 * r, 0, 90, style=style)
            point_4 = (x + w, y + h - r)
            point_5 = (x + w - r, y + h)

        if Corner.BOTTOM_RIGHT in round_corners:
            self.arc(coor_x[2], coor_y[2] - 2 * r, 2 * r, 90, 180, style=style)
            point_6 = (x + r, y + h)
            point_7 = (x, y + h - r)

        if style.is_fill:

            self.polyline(
                [
                    point_1,
                    point_2,
                    point_3,
                    point_4,
                    point_5,
                    point_6,
                    point_7,
                    point_8,
                    point_1,
                ],
                style="F",
            )

        if style.is_draw:
            self.line(point_1[0], point_1[1], point_2[0], point_2[1])
            self.line(point_3[0], point_3[1], point_4[0], point_4[1])
            self.line(point_5[0], point_5[1], point_6[0], point_6[1])
            self.line(point_7[0], point_7[1], point_8[0], point_8[1])

    @check_page
    def ellipse(self, x, y, w, h, style=None):
        """
        Outputs an ellipse.
        It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

        Args:
            x (float): Abscissa of upper-left bounding box.
            y (float): Ordinate of upper-left bounding box.
            w (float): Width
            h (float): Height
            style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:

            * `D` or empty string: draw border. This is the default value.
            * `F`: fill
            * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
        """
        style = RenderStyle.coerce(style)
        self._draw_ellipse(x, y, w, h, style.operator)

    def _draw_ellipse(self, x, y, w, h, operator):
        cx = x + w / 2
        cy = y + h / 2
        rx = w / 2
        ry = h / 2

        lx = 4 / 3 * (math.sqrt(2) - 1) * rx
        ly = 4 / 3 * (math.sqrt(2) - 1) * ry

        self._out(
            (
                f"{(cx + rx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy) * self.k:.2f} m "
                f"{(cx + rx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy + ly) * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{(cx + lx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy + ry) * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{cx * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy + ry) * self.k:.2f} c"
            )
        )
        self._out(
            (
                f"{(cx - lx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy + ry) * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{(cx - rx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy + ly) * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{(cx - rx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy) * self.k:.2f} c"
            )
        )
        self._out(
            (
                f"{(cx - rx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy - ly) * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{(cx - lx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy - ry) * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{cx * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy - ry) * self.k:.2f} c"
            )
        )
        self._out(
            (
                f"{(cx + lx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy - ry) * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{(cx + rx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy - ly) * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{(cx + rx) * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy) * self.k:.2f} c {operator}"
            )
        )

    @check_page
    def circle(self, x, y, r, style=None):
        """
        Outputs a circle.
        It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

        Args:
            x (float): Abscissa of upper-left bounding box.
            y (float): Ordinate of upper-left bounding box.
            r (float): Radius of the circle.
            style (str): Style of rendering. Possible values are:

            * `D` or None: draw border. This is the default value.
            * `F`: fill
            * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
        """
        self.ellipse(x, y, r, r, style)

    @check_page
    def regular_polygon(self, x, y, numSides, polyWidth, rotateDegrees=0, style=None):
        """
        Outputs a regular polygon with n sides
        It can be rotated
        Style can also be applied (fill, border...)

        Args:
            x (float): Abscissa of upper-left bounding box.
            y (float): Ordinate of upper-left bounding box.
            numSides (int): Number of sides for polygon.
            polyWidth (float): Width of the polygon.
            rotateDegrees (float): Optional degree amount to rotate polygon.
            style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:

            * `D` or None: draw border. This is the default value.
            * `F`: fill
            * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
        """
        radius = polyWidth / 2
        centerX = x + radius
        centerY = y - radius
        # center point is (centerX, centerY)
        points = []
        for i in range(1, numSides + 1):
            point = centerX + radius * math.cos(
                math.radians((360 / numSides) * i) + math.radians(rotateDegrees)
            ), centerY + radius * math.sin(
                math.radians((360 / numSides) * i) + math.radians(rotateDegrees)
            )
            points.append(point)
        # creates list of touples containing cordinate points of vertices

        self.polygon(points, style=style)
        # passes points through polygon function

    @check_page
    def star(self, x, y, r_in, r_out, corners, rotate_degrees=0, style=None):
        """
        Outputs a regular star with n corners.
        It can be rotated.
        It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

        Args:
            x (float): Abscissa of star's centre.
            y (float): Ordinate of star's centre.
            r_in (float): radius of internal circle.
            r_out (float): radius of external circle.
            corners (int): number of star's corners.
            rotate_degrees (float): Optional degree amount to rotate star clockwise.

            style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:
            * `D`: draw border. This is the default value.
            * `F`: fill.
            * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill.
        """
        th = math.radians(rotate_degrees)
        point_list = []
        for i in range(0, (corners * 2) + 1):
            corner_x = x + (r_out if i % 2 == 0 else r_in) * math.sin(th)
            corner_y = y + (r_out if i % 2 == 0 else r_in) * math.cos(th)
            point_list.append((corner_x, corner_y))

            th += math.radians(180 / corners)

        self.polyline(point_list, polygon=True, style=style)

    @check_page
    def arc(
        self,
        x,
        y,
        a,
        start_angle,
        end_angle,
        b=None,
        inclination=0,
        clockwise=False,
        start_from_center=False,
        end_at_center=False,
        style=None,
    ):
        """
        Outputs an arc.
        It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

        Args:
            a (float): Semi-major axis diameter.
            b (float): Semi-minor axis diameter, if None, equals to a (default: None).
            start_angle (float): Start angle of the arc (in degrees).
            end_angle (float): End angle of the arc (in degrees).
            inclination (float): Inclination of the arc in respect of the x-axis (default: 0).
            clockwise (bool): Way of drawing the arc (True: clockwise, False: counterclockwise) (default: False).
            start_from_center (bool): Start drawing from the center of the circle (default: False).
            end_at_center (bool): End drawing at the center of the circle (default: False).
            style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Allowed values are:

            * `D` or None: draw border. This is the default value.
            * `F`: fill
            * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
        """
        style = RenderStyle.coerce(style)

        if b is None:
            b = a

        a /= 2
        b /= 2

        cx = x + a
        cy = y + b

        # Functions used only to construct other points of the bezier curve
        def deg_to_rad(deg):
            return deg * math.pi / 180

        def angle_to_param(angle):
            angle = deg_to_rad(angle % 360)
            eta = math.atan2(math.sin(angle) / b, math.cos(angle) / a)

            if eta < 0:
                eta += 2 * math.pi
            return eta

        theta = deg_to_rad(inclination)
        cos_theta = math.cos(theta)
        sin_theta = math.sin(theta)

        def evaluate(eta):
            a_cos_eta = a * math.cos(eta)
            b_sin_eta = b * math.sin(eta)

            return [
                cx + a_cos_eta * cos_theta - b_sin_eta * sin_theta,
                cy + a_cos_eta * sin_theta + b_sin_eta * cos_theta,
            ]

        def derivative_evaluate(eta):
            a_sin_eta = a * math.sin(eta)
            b_cos_eta = b * math.cos(eta)

            return [
                -a_sin_eta * cos_theta - b_cos_eta * sin_theta,
                -a_sin_eta * sin_theta + b_cos_eta * cos_theta,
            ]

        # Calculating start_eta and end_eta so that
        #   start_eta < end_eta   <= start_eta + 2*PI if counterclockwise
        #   end_eta   < start_eta <= end_eta + 2*PI   if clockwise
        start_eta = angle_to_param(start_angle)
        end_eta = angle_to_param(end_angle)

        if not clockwise and end_eta <= start_eta:
            end_eta += 2 * math.pi
        elif clockwise and end_eta >= start_eta:
            start_eta += 2 * math.pi

        start_point = evaluate(start_eta)

        # Move to the start point
        if start_from_center:
            self._out(f"{cx * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy) * self.k:.2f} m")
            self._out(
                f"{start_point[0] * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - start_point[1]) * self.k:.2f} l"
            )
        else:
            self._out(
                f"{start_point[0] * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - start_point[1]) * self.k:.2f} m"
            )

        # Number of curves to use, maximal segment angle is 2*PI/max_curves
        max_curves = 4
        n = min(
            max_curves, math.ceil(abs(end_eta - start_eta) / (2 * math.pi / max_curves))
        )
        d_eta = (end_eta - start_eta) / n

        alpha = math.sin(d_eta) * (math.sqrt(4 + 3 * math.tan(d_eta / 2) ** 2) - 1) / 3

        eta2 = start_eta
        p2 = evaluate(eta2)
        p2_prime = derivative_evaluate(eta2)

        for i in range(n):
            p1 = p2
            p1_prime = p2_prime

            eta2 += d_eta
            p2 = evaluate(eta2)
            p2_prime = derivative_evaluate(eta2)

            control_point_1 = [p1[0] + alpha * p1_prime[0], p1[1] + alpha * p1_prime[1]]
            control_point_2 = [p2[0] - alpha * p2_prime[0], p2[1] - alpha * p2_prime[1]]

            end = ""
            if i == n - 1 and not end_at_center:
                end = f" {style.operator}"

            self._out(
                (
                    f"{control_point_1[0] * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - control_point_1[1]) * self.k:.2f} "
                    f"{control_point_2[0] * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - control_point_2[1]) * self.k:.2f} "
                    f"{p2[0] * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - p2[1]) * self.k:.2f} c" + end
                )
            )

        if end_at_center:
            if start_from_center:
                self._out(f"h {style.operator}")
            else:
                self._out(
                    f"{cx * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy) * self.k:.2f} l {style.operator}"
                )

    def solid_arc(
        self,
        x,
        y,
        a,
        start_angle,
        end_angle,
        b=None,
        inclination=0,
        clockwise=False,
        style=None,
    ):
        """
        Outputs a solid arc. A solid arc combines an arc and a triangle to form a pie slice
        It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

        Args:
            x (float): Abscissa of upper-left bounding box.
            y (float): Ordinate of upper-left bounding box.
            a (float): Semi-major axis.
            b (float): Semi-minor axis, if None, equals to a (default: None).
            start_angle (float): Start angle of the arc (in degrees).
            end_angle (float): End angle of the arc (in degrees).
            inclination (float): Inclination of the arc in respect of the x-axis (default: 0).
            clockwise (bool): Way of drawing the arc (True: clockwise, False: counterclockwise) (default: False).
            style (str): Style of rendering. Possible values are:

            * `D` or None: draw border. This is the default value.
            * `F`: fill
            * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
        """
        self.arc(
            x,
            y,
            a,
            start_angle,
            end_angle,
            b,
            inclination,
            clockwise,
            True,
            True,
            style,
        )

    def add_font(self, family=None, style="", fname=None, uni="DEPRECATED"):
        """
        Imports a TrueType or OpenType font and makes it available
        for later calls to the `FPDF.set_font()` method.

        You will find more information on the "Unicode" documentation page.

        Args:
            family (str): optional name of the font family. Used as a reference for `FPDF.set_font()`.
                If not provided, use the base name of the `fname` font path, without extension.
            style (str): font style. "B" for bold, "I" for italic.
            fname (str): font file name. You can specify a relative or full path.
                If the file is not found, it will be searched in `FPDF_FONT_DIR`.
            uni (bool): [**DEPRECATED since 2.5.1**] unused
        """
        if not fname:
            raise ValueError('"fname" parameter is required')

        ext = splitext(str(fname))[1].lower()
        if ext not in (".otf", ".otc", ".ttf", ".ttc"):
            raise ValueError(
                f"Unsupported font file extension: {ext}."
                " add_font() used to accept .pkl file as input, but for security reasons"
                " this feature is deprecated since v2.5.1 and has been removed in v2.5.3."
            )

        if uni != "DEPRECATED":
            warnings.warn(
                '"uni" parameter is deprecated, unused and will soon be removed',
                DeprecationWarning,
                stacklevel=2,
            )

        style = "".join(sorted(style.upper()))
        if any(letter not in "BI" for letter in style):
            raise ValueError(
                f"Unknown style provided (only B & I letters are allowed): {style}"
            )

        for parent in (".", FPDF_FONT_DIR):
            if not parent:
                continue

            if (Path(parent) / fname).exists():
                font_file_path = Path(parent) / fname
                break
        else:
            raise FileNotFoundError(f"TTF Font file not found: {fname}")

        if family is None:
            family = font_file_path.stem

        fontkey = f"{family.lower()}{style}"
        # Check if font already added or one of the core fonts
        if fontkey in self.fonts or fontkey in self.core_fonts:
            warnings.warn(f"Core font or font already added '{fontkey}': doing nothing")
            return
        font = ttLib.TTFont(font_file_path)

        scale = 1000 / font["head"].unitsPerEm
        default_width = round(scale * font["hmtx"].metrics[".notdef"][0])

        try:
            cap_height = font["OS/2"].sCapHeight
        except AttributeError:
            cap_height = font["hhea"].ascent

        # entry for the PDF font descriptor specifying various characteristics of the font
        flags = FontDescriptorFlags.SYMBOLIC
        if font["post"].isFixedPitch:
            flags |= FontDescriptorFlags.FIXED_PITCH
        if font["post"].italicAngle != 0:
            flags |= FontDescriptorFlags.ITALIC
        if font["OS/2"].usWeightClass >= 600:
            flags |= FontDescriptorFlags.FORCE_BOLD

        desc = PDFFontDescriptor(
            ascent=round(font["hhea"].ascent * scale),
            descent=round(font["hhea"].descent * scale),
            cap_height=round(cap_height * scale),
            flags=flags,
            font_b_box=(
                f"[{font['head'].xMin * scale:.0f} {font['head'].yMin * scale:.0f}"
                f" {font['head'].xMax * scale:.0f} {font['head'].yMax * scale:.0f}]"
            ),
            italic_angle=int(font["post"].italicAngle),
            stem_v=round(50 + int(pow((font["OS/2"].usWeightClass / 65), 2))),
            missing_width=default_width,
        )

        # a map unicode_char -> char_width
        char_widths = defaultdict(lambda: default_width)
        for char in font.getBestCmap().keys():
            # take glyph associated to char
            glyph = font.getBestCmap()[char]

            # take width associated to glyph
            w = font["hmtx"].metrics[glyph][0]

            # probably this check could be deleted
            if w == 65535:
                w = 0

            char_widths[char] = round(scale * w + 0.001)  # ROUND_HALF_UP

        # include numbers in the subset! (if alias present)
        # ensure that alias is mapped 1-by-1 additionally (must be replaceable)
        sbarr = "\x00 "
        if self.str_alias_nb_pages:
            sbarr += "0123456789"
            sbarr += self.str_alias_nb_pages

        self.fonts[fontkey] = {
            "i": len(self.fonts) + 1,
            "type": "TTF",
            "name": re.sub("[ ()]", "", font["name"].getBestFullName()),
            "desc": desc,
            "up": round(font["post"].underlinePosition * scale),
            "ut": round(font["post"].underlineThickness * scale),
            "cw": char_widths,
            "ttffile": font_file_path,
            "fontkey": fontkey,
            "subset": SubsetMap(map(ord, sbarr)),
        }

    def set_font(self, family=None, style="", size=0):
        """
        Sets the font used to print character strings.
        It is mandatory to call this method at least once before printing text.

        Default encoding is not specified, but all text writing methods accept only
        unicode for external fonts and one byte encoding for standard.

        Standard fonts use `Latin-1` encoding by default, but Windows
        encoding `cp1252` (Western Europe) can be used with
        `self.core_fonts_encoding = encoding`.

        The font specified is retained from page to page.
        The method can be called before the first page is created.

        Args:
            family (str): name of a font added with `FPDF.add_font`,
                or name of one of the 14 standard "PostScript" fonts:
                Courier (fixed-width), Helvetica (sans serif), Times (serif),
                Symbol (symbolic) or ZapfDingbats (symbolic)
                If an empty string is provided, the current family is retained.
            style (str): empty string (by default) or a combination
                of one or several letters among B (bold), I (italic) and U (underline).
                Bold and italic styles do not apply to Symbol and ZapfDingbats fonts.
            size (float): in points. The default value is the current size.
        """
        if not family:
            family = self.font_family

        family = family.lower()
        style = "".join(sorted(style.upper()))
        if any(letter not in "BIU" for letter in style):
            raise ValueError(
                f"Unknown style provided (only B/I/U letters are allowed): {style}"
            )
        if "U" in style:
            self.underline = True
            style = style.replace("U", "")
        else:
            self.underline = False

        if family in self.font_aliases and family + style not in self.fonts:
            warnings.warn(
                f"Substituting font {family} by core font "
                f"{self.font_aliases[family]}"
            )
            family = self.font_aliases[family]
        elif family in ("symbol", "zapfdingbats") and style:
            warnings.warn(
                f"Built-in font {family} only has a single 'style' and can't be bold "
                f"or italic"
            )
            style = ""

        if size == 0:
            size = self.font_size_pt

        # Test if font is already selected
        if (
            self.font_family == family
            and self.font_style == style
            and isclose(self.font_size_pt, size)
        ):
            return

        # Test if used for the first time
        fontkey = family + style
        if fontkey not in self.fonts:
            if fontkey not in self.core_fonts:
                raise FPDFException(
                    f"Undefined font: {fontkey} - "
                    f"Use built-in fonts or FPDF.add_font() beforehand"
                )
            # If it's one of the core fonts, add it to self.fonts
            self.fonts[fontkey] = {
                "i": len(self.fonts) + 1,
                "type": "core",
                "name": self.core_fonts[fontkey],
                "up": -100,
                "ut": 50,
                "cw": fpdf_charwidths[fontkey],
                "fontkey": fontkey,
            }

        # Select it
        self.font_family = family
        self.font_style = style
        self.font_size_pt = size
        self.current_font = self.fonts[fontkey]
        if self.page > 0:
            self._out(f"BT /F{self.current_font['i']} {self.font_size_pt:.2f} Tf ET")

    def set_font_size(self, size):
        """
        Configure the font size in points

        Args:
            size (float): font size in points
        """
        if isclose(self.font_size_pt, size):
            return
        self.font_size_pt = size
        if self.page > 0:
            if not self.current_font:
                raise FPDFException(
                    "Cannot set font size: a font must be selected first"
                )
            self._out(f"BT /F{self.current_font['i']} {self.font_size_pt:.2f} Tf ET")

    def set_char_spacing(self, spacing):
        """
        Sets horizontal character spacing.
        A positive value increases the space between characters, a negative value
        reduces it (which may result in glyph overlap).
        By default, no spacing is set (which is equivalent to a value of 0).

        Args:
            spacing (float): horizontal spacing in document units
        """
        if self.char_spacing == spacing:
            return
        self.char_spacing = spacing
        if self.page > 0:
            self._out(f"BT {spacing:.2f} Tc ET")

    def set_stretching(self, stretching):
        """
        Sets horizontal font stretching.
        By default, no stretching is set (which is equivalent to a value of 100).

        Args:
            stretching (float): horizontal stretching (scaling) in percents.
        """
        if self.font_stretching == stretching:
            return
        self.font_stretching = stretching
        if self.page > 0:
            self._out(f"BT {stretching:.2f} Tz ET")

    def add_link(self, y=0, x=0, page=-1, zoom="null"):
        """
        Creates a new internal link and returns its identifier.
        An internal link is a clickable area which directs to another place within the document.

        The identifier can then be passed to the `FPDF.cell()`, `FPDF.write()`, `FPDF.image()`
        or `FPDF.link()` methods.

        Args:
            y (float): optional ordinate of target position.
                The default value is 0 (top of page).
            x (float): optional abscissa of target position.
                The default value is 0 (top of page).
            page (int): optional number of target page.
                -1 indicates the current page, which is the default value.
            zoom (float): optional new zoom level after following the link.
                Currently ignored by Sumatra PDF Reader, but observed by Adobe Acrobat reader.
        """
        link = DestinationXYZ(
            self.page if page == -1 else page,
            top=self.h_pt - y * self.k,
            left=x * self.k,
            zoom=zoom,
        )
        link_index = len(self.links) + 1
        self.links[link_index] = link
        return link_index

    def set_link(self, link, y=0, x=0, page=-1, zoom="null"):
        """
        Defines the page and position a link points to.

        Args:
            link (int): a link identifier returned by `FPDF.add_link()`.
            y (float): optional ordinate of target position.
                The default value is 0 (top of page).
            x (float): optional abscissa of target position.
                The default value is 0 (top of page).
            page (int): optional number of target page.
                -1 indicates the current page, which is the default value.
            zoom (float): optional new zoom level after following the link.
                Currently ignored by Sumatra PDF Reader, but observed by Adobe Acrobat reader.
        """
        self.links[link] = DestinationXYZ(
            self.page if page == -1 else page,
            top=self.h_pt - y * self.k,
            left=x * self.k,
            zoom=zoom,
        )

    @check_page
    def link(self, x, y, w, h, link, alt_text=None, border_width=0):
        """
        Puts a link annotation on a rectangular area of the page.
        Text or image links are generally put via `FPDF.cell`,
        `FPDF.write` or `FPDF.image`,
        but this method can be useful for instance to define a clickable area inside an image.

        Args:
            x (float): horizontal position (from the left) to the left side of the link rectangle
            y (float): vertical position (from the top) to the bottom side of the link rectangle
            w (float): width of the link rectangle
            h (float): height of the link rectangle
            link: either an URL or an integer returned by `FPDF.add_link`, defining an internal link to a page
            alt_text (str): optional textual description of the link, for accessibility purposes
            border_width (int): thickness of an optional black border surrounding the link.
                Not all PDF readers honor this: Acrobat renders it but not Sumatra.
        """
        action, dest = None, None
        if link:
            if isinstance(link, str):
                action = URIAction(link)
            else:  # Dest type ending of annotation entry
                assert (
                    link in self.links
                ), f"Link with an invalid index: {link} (doc #links={len(self.links)})"
                dest = self.links[link]
                if not dest.page_number:
                    raise ValueError(
                        f"Cannot insert link {link} with no page number assigned"
                    )
        link_annot = AnnotationDict(
            "Link",
            x=x * self.k,
            y=self.h_pt - y * self.k,
            width=w * self.k,
            height=h * self.k,
            action=action,
            dest=dest,
            border_width=border_width,
        )
        self.pages[self.page].annots.append(link_annot)
        if alt_text is not None:
            # Note: the spec indicates that a /StructParent could be added **inside* this /Annot,
            # but tests with Adobe Acrobat Reader reveal that the page /StructParents inserted below
            # is enough to link the marked content in the hierarchy tree with this annotation link.
            self._add_marked_content(struct_type="/Link", alt_text=alt_text)
        return link_annot

    def embed_file(
        self,
        file_path=None,
        bytes=None,
        basename=None,
        modification_date=None,
        **kwargs,
    ):
        """
        Embed a file into the PDF document

        Args:
            file_path (str or Path): filesystem path to the existing file to embed
            bytes (bytes): optional, as an alternative to file_path, bytes content of the file to embed
            basename (str): optional, required if bytes is provided, file base name
            creation_date (datetime): date and time when the file was created
            modification_date (datetime): date and time when the file was last modified
            desc (str): optional description of the file
            compress (bool): enabled zlib compression of the file - False by default
            checksum (bool): insert a MD5 checksum of the file content - False by default

        Returns: a PDFEmbeddedFile instance, with a .basename string attribute representing the internal file name
        """
        if file_path:
            if bytes:
                raise ValueError("'bytes' cannot be provided with 'file_path'")
            if basename:
                raise ValueError("'basename' cannot be provided with 'file_path'")
            file_path = Path(file_path)
            with file_path.open("rb") as input_file:
                bytes = input_file.read()
            basename = file_path.name
            stats = file_path.stat()
            if modification_date is None:
                modification_date = datetime.fromtimestamp(stats.st_mtime).astimezone()
        else:
            if not bytes:
                raise ValueError("'bytes' is required if 'file_path' is not provided")
            if not basename:
                raise ValueError(
                    "'basename' is required if 'file_path' is not provided"
                )
        already_embedded_basenames = set(
            file.basename() for file in self.embedded_files
        )
        if basename in already_embedded_basenames:
            raise ValueError(f"{basename} has already been embedded in this file")
        embedded_file = PDFEmbeddedFile(
            basename=basename,
            contents=bytes,
            modification_date=modification_date,
            **kwargs,
        )
        self.embedded_files.append(embedded_file)
        self._set_min_pdf_version("1.4")
        return embedded_file

    @check_page
    def file_attachment_annotation(
        self, file_path, x, y, w=1, h=1, name=None, flags=DEFAULT_ANNOT_FLAGS, **kwargs
    ):
        """
        Puts a file attachment annotation on a rectangular area of the page.

        Args:
            file_path (str or Path): filesystem path to the existing file to embed
            x (float): horizontal position (from the left) to the left side of the link rectangle
            y (float): vertical position (from the top) to the bottom side of the link rectangle
            w (float): optional width of the link rectangle
            h (float): optional height of the link rectangle
            name (fpdf.enums.FileAttachmentAnnotationName, str): optional icon that shall be used in displaying the annotation
            flags (Tuple[fpdf.enums.AnnotationFlag], Tuple[str]): optional list of flags defining annotation properties
            bytes (bytes): optional, as an alternative to file_path, bytes content of the file to embed
            basename (str): optional, required if bytes is provided, file base name
            creation_date (datetime): date and time when the file was created
            modification_date (datetime): date and time when the file was last modified
            desc (str): optional description of the file
            compress (bool): enabled zlib compression of the file - False by default
            checksum (bool): insert a MD5 checksum of the file content - False by default
        """
        embedded_file = self.embed_file(file_path, **kwargs)
        embedded_file.set_globally_enclosed(False)
        annotation = AnnotationDict(
            "FileAttachment",
            x * self.k,
            self.h_pt - y * self.k,
            w * self.k,
            h * self.k,
            file_spec=embedded_file.file_spec(),
            name=FileAttachmentAnnotationName.coerce(name) if name else None,
            flags=tuple(AnnotationFlag.coerce(flag) for flag in flags),
        )
        self.pages[self.page].annots.append(annotation)
        return annotation

    @check_page
    def text_annotation(
        self, x, y, text, w=1, h=1, name=None, flags=DEFAULT_ANNOT_FLAGS
    ):
        """
        Puts a text annotation on a rectangular area of the page.

        Args:
            x (float): horizontal position (from the left) to the left side of the link rectangle
            y (float): vertical position (from the top) to the bottom side of the link rectangle
            text (str): text to display
            w (float): optional width of the link rectangle
            h (float): optional height of the link rectangle
            name (fpdf.enums.AnnotationName, str): optional icon that shall be used in displaying the annotation
            flags (Tuple[fpdf.enums.AnnotationFlag], Tuple[str]): optional list of flags defining annotation properties
        """
        annotation = AnnotationDict(
            "Text",
            x * self.k,
            self.h_pt - y * self.k,
            w * self.k,
            h * self.k,
            contents=text,
            name=AnnotationName.coerce(name) if name else None,
            flags=tuple(AnnotationFlag.coerce(flag) for flag in flags),
        )
        self.pages[self.page].annots.append(annotation)
        return annotation

    @check_page
    def add_action(self, action, x, y, w, h):
        """
        Puts an Action annotation on a rectangular area of the page.

        Args:
            action (fpdf.actions.Action): the action to add
            x (float): horizontal position (from the left) to the left side of the link rectangle
            y (float): vertical position (from the top) to the bottom side of the link rectangle
            w (float): width of the link rectangle
            h (float): height of the link rectangle
        """
        annotation = AnnotationDict(
            "Action",
            x * self.k,
            self.h_pt - y * self.k,
            w * self.k,
            h * self.k,
            action=action,
        )
        self.pages[self.page].annots.append(annotation)
        return annotation

    @contextmanager
    def highlight(
        self, text, title="", type="Highlight", color=(1, 1, 0), modification_time=None
    ):
        """
        Context manager that adds a single highlight annotation based on the text lines inserted
        inside its indented block.

        Args:
            text (str): text of the annotation
            title (str): the text label that shall be displayed in the title bar of the annotation’s
                pop-up window when open and active. This entry shall identify the user who added the annotation.
            type (fpdf.enums.TextMarkupType, str): "Highlight", "Underline", "Squiggly" or "StrikeOut".
            color (tuple): a tuple of numbers in the range 0.0 to 1.0, representing a colour used for
                the title bar of the annotation’s pop-up window. Defaults to yellow.
            modification_time (datetime): date and time when the annotation was most recently modified
        """
        if self._record_text_quad_points:
            raise FPDFException("highlight() cannot be nested")
        self._record_text_quad_points = True
        yield
        for page, quad_points in self._text_quad_points.items():
            self.add_text_markup_annotation(
                type,
                text,
                quad_points=quad_points,
                title=title,
                color=color,
                modification_time=modification_time,
                page=page,
            )
        self._text_quad_points = defaultdict(list)
        self._record_text_quad_points = False

    add_highlight = highlight  # For backward compatibilty

    @check_page
    def add_text_markup_annotation(
        self,
        type,
        text,
        quad_points,
        title="",
        color=(1, 1, 0),
        modification_time=None,
        page=None,
    ):
        """
        Adds a text markup annotation on some quadrilateral areas of the page.

        Args:
            type (fpdf.enums.TextMarkupType, str): "Highlight", "Underline", "Squiggly" or "StrikeOut"
            text (str): text of the annotation
            quad_points (tuple): array of 8 × n numbers specifying the coordinates of n quadrilaterals
                in default user space that comprise the region in which the link should be activated.
                The coordinates for each quadrilateral are given in the order: x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 x4 y4
                specifying the four vertices of the quadrilateral in counterclockwise order
            title (str): the text label that shall be displayed in the title bar of the annotation’s
                pop-up window when open and active. This entry shall identify the user who added the annotation.
            color (tuple): a tuple of numbers in the range 0.0 to 1.0, representing a colour used for
                the title bar of the annotation’s pop-up window. Defaults to yellow.
            modification_time (datetime): date and time when the annotation was most recently modified
            page (int): index of the page where this annotation is added
        """
        self._set_min_pdf_version("1.6")
        type = TextMarkupType.coerce(type).value
        if modification_time is None:
            modification_time = self.creation_date
        if page is None:
            page = self.page
        x_min = min(quad_points[0::2])
        y_min = min(quad_points[1::2])
        x_max = max(quad_points[0::2])
        y_max = max(quad_points[1::2])
        annotation = AnnotationDict(
            type,
            contents=text,
            x=y_min,
            y=y_max,
            width=x_max - x_min,
            height=y_max - y_min,
            color=color,
            modification_time=modification_time,
            title=title,
            quad_points=quad_points,
        )
        self.pages[page].annots.append(annotation)
        return annotation

    @check_page
    def ink_annotation(
        self, coords, contents="", title="", color=(1, 1, 0), border_width=1
    ):
        """
        Adds add an ink annotation on the page.

        Args:
            coords (tuple): an iterable of coordinates (pairs of numbers) defining a path
            contents (str): textual description
            title (str): the text label that shall be displayed in the title bar of the annotation’s
                pop-up window when open and active. This entry shall identify the user who added the annotation.
            color (tuple): a tuple of numbers in the range 0.0 to 1.0, representing a colour used for
                the title bar of the annotation’s pop-up window. Defaults to yellow.
            border_width (int): thickness of the path stroke.
        """
        ink_list = sum(((x * self.k, (self.h - y) * self.k) for (x, y) in coords), ())
        x_min = min(ink_list[0::2])
        y_min = min(ink_list[1::2])
        x_max = max(ink_list[0::2])
        y_max = max(ink_list[1::2])
        annotation = AnnotationDict(
            "Ink",
            x=y_min,
            y=y_max,
            width=x_max - x_min,
            height=y_max - y_min,
            ink_list=ink_list,
            color=color,
            border_width=border_width,
            contents=contents,
            title=title,
        )
        self.pages[self.page].annots.append(annotation)
        return annotation

    @check_page
    def text(self, x, y, txt=""):
        """
        Prints a character string. The origin is on the left of the first character,
        on the baseline. This method allows placing a string precisely on the page,
        but it is usually easier to use the `FPDF.cell()`, `FPDF.multi_cell() or `FPDF.write()` methods.

        Args:
            x (float): abscissa of the origin
            y (float): ordinate of the origin
            txt (str): string to print
        """
        if not self.font_family:
            raise FPDFException("No font set, you need to call set_font() beforehand")
        txt = self.normalize_text(txt)
        if self.is_ttf_font:
            txt_mapped = ""
            for char in txt:
                uni = ord(char)
                # Instead of adding the actual character to the stream its code is
                # mapped to a position in the font's subset
                txt_mapped += chr(self.current_font["subset"].pick(uni))
            txt2 = escape_parens(txt_mapped.encode("utf-16-be").decode("latin-1"))
        else:
            txt2 = escape_parens(txt)
        sl = [f"BT {x * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - y) * self.k:.2f} Td"]
        if self.text_mode != TextMode.FILL:
            sl.append(f" {self.text_mode} Tr {self.line_width:.2f} w")
        sl.append(f"({txt2}) Tj ET")
        if (self.underline and txt != "") or self._record_text_quad_points:
            w = self.get_string_width(txt, normalized=True, markdown=False)
            if self.underline and txt != "":
                sl.append(self._do_underline(x, y, w))
            if self._record_text_quad_points:
                h = self.font_size
                y -= 0.8 * h  # same coefficient as in _render_styled_text_line()
                self._add_quad_points(x, y, w, h)
        attr_l = []
        if self.fill_color != self.text_color:
            attr_l.append(f"{self.text_color.serialize().lower()}")
        if attr_l:
            sl = ["q"] + attr_l + sl + ["Q"]
        self._out(" ".join(sl))

    @check_page
    def rotate(self, angle, x=None, y=None):
        """
        .. deprecated:: 2.1.0
            Use `FPDF.rotation()` instead.
        """
        warnings.warn(
            "rotate() can produces malformed PDFs and is deprecated. "
            "Use the rotation() context manager instead.",
            DeprecationWarning,
            stacklevel=3,
        )
        if x is None:
            x = self.x
        if y is None:
            y = self.y

        if self._angle != 0:
            self._out("Q")
        self._angle = angle
        if angle != 0:
            angle *= math.pi / 180
            c = math.cos(angle)
            s = math.sin(angle)
            cx = x * self.k
            cy = (self.h - y) * self.k
            s = (
                f"q {c:.5F} {s:.5F} {-s:.5F} {c:.5F} {cx:.2F} {cy:.2F} cm "
                f"1 0 0 1 {-cx:.2F} {-cy:.2F} cm"
            )
            self._out(s)

    @check_page
    @contextmanager
    def rotation(self, angle, x=None, y=None):
        """
        This method allows to perform a rotation around a given center.
        It must be used as a context-manager using `with`:

            with rotation(angle=90, x=x, y=y):
                pdf.something()

        The rotation affects all elements which are printed inside the indented
        context (with the exception of clickable areas).

        Args:
            angle (float): angle in degrees
            x (float): abscissa of the center of the rotation
            y (float): ordinate of the center of the rotation

        Notes
        -----

        Only the rendering is altered. The `FPDF.get_x()` and `FPDF.get_y()` methods are
        not affected, nor the automatic page break mechanism.
        The rotation also establishes a local graphics state, so that any
        graphics state settings changed within will not affect the operations
        invoked after it has finished.
        """
        if x is None:
            x = self.x
        if y is None:
            y = self.y
        angle *= math.pi / 180
        c, s = math.cos(angle), math.sin(angle)
        cx, cy = x * self.k, (self.h - y) * self.k
        with self.local_context():
            self._out(
                f"{c:.5F} {s:.5F} {-s:.5F} {c:.5F} {cx:.2F} {cy:.2F} cm "
                f"1 0 0 1 {-cx:.2F} {-cy:.2F} cm"
            )
            yield

    @check_page
    @contextmanager
    def skew(self, ax=0, ay=0, x=None, y=None):
        """
        This method allows to perform a skew transformation originating from a given center.
        It must be used as a context-manager using `with`:

            with skew(ax=15, ay=15, x=x, y=y):
                pdf.something()

        The skew transformation affects all elements which are printed inside the indented
        context (with the exception of clickable areas).

        Args:
            ax (float): angle of skew in the horizontal direction in degrees
            ay (float): angle of skew in the vertical direction in degrees
            x (float): abscissa of the center of the skew transformation
            y (float): ordinate of the center of the skew transformation
        """
        lim_val = 2**32
        if x is None:
            x = self.x
        if y is None:
            y = self.y
        ax = max(min(math.tan(ax * (math.pi / 180)), lim_val), -lim_val)
        ay = max(min(math.tan(ay * (math.pi / 180)), lim_val), -lim_val)
        cx, cy = x * self.k, (self.h - y) * self.k
        with self.local_context():
            self._out(
                f"1 {ay:.5f} {ax:.5f} 1 {cx:.2f} {cy:.2f} cm "
                f"1 0 0 1 -{cx:.2f} -{cy:.2f} cm"
            )
            yield

    @check_page
    @contextmanager
    def local_context(
        self,
        font_family=None,
        font_style=None,
        font_size=None,
        line_width=None,
        draw_color=None,
        fill_color=None,
        text_color=None,
        dash_pattern=None,
        **kwargs,
    ):
        """
        Creates a local graphics state, which won't affect the surrounding code.
        This method must be used as a context manager using `with`:

            with pdf.local_context():
                set_some_state()
                draw_some_stuff()

        The affected settings are those controlled by GraphicsStateMixin and drawing.GraphicsStyle:
            allow_transparency
            auto_close
            blend_mode
            dash_pattern
            draw_color
            fill_color
            fill_opacity
            font_family
            font_size
            font_style
            font_stretching
            intersection_rule
            line_width
            paint_rule
            stroke_cap_style
            stroke_join_style
            stroke_miter_limit
            stroke_opacity
            text_color
            text_mode
            underline
            char_vpos

        Args:
            **kwargs: key-values settings to set at the beggining of this context.
        """
        if self._in_unbreakable:
            raise FPDFException(
                "cannot create a local context inside an unbreakable() code block"
            )
        self._push_local_stack()
        gs = None
        for key, value in kwargs.items():
            if key in (
                "stroke_color",
                "stroke_dash_phase",
                "stroke_dash_pattern",
                "stroke_width",
            ):
                raise ValueError(
                    f"Unsupported setting: {key} - This can be controlled through dash_pattern / draw_color / line_width"
                )
            if key in drawing.GraphicsStyle.MERGE_PROPERTIES:
                if gs is None:
                    gs = drawing.GraphicsStyle()
                setattr(gs, key, value)
                if key == "blend_mode":
                    self._set_min_pdf_version("1.4")
            elif key in ("font_stretching", "text_mode", "underline", "char_vpos"):
                setattr(self, key, value)
            else:
                raise ValueError(f"Unsupported setting: {key}")
        if gs:
            gs_name = self._drawing_graphics_state_registry.register_style(gs)
            self._out(f"q /{gs_name} gs")
        else:
            self._out("q")
        # All the following calls to .set*() methods invoke .out() and write to the stream buffer:
        if font_family is not None or font_style is not None or font_size is not None:
            self.set_font(
                font_family or self.font_family,
                font_style or self.font_style,
                font_size or self.font_size_pt,
            )
        if line_width is not None:
            self.set_line_width(line_width)
        if draw_color is not None:
            if isinstance(draw_color, Sequence):
                self.set_draw_color(*draw_color)
            else:
                self.set_draw_color(draw_color)
        if fill_color is not None:
            if isinstance(fill_color, Sequence):
                self.set_fill_color(*fill_color)
            else:
                self.set_fill_color(fill_color)
        if text_color is not None:
            if isinstance(text_color, Sequence):
                self.set_text_color(*text_color)
            else:
                self.set_text_color(text_color)
        if dash_pattern is not None:
            self.set_dash_pattern(**dash_pattern)
        yield
        self._out("Q")
        self._pop_local_stack()

    @property
    def accept_page_break(self):
        """
        Whenever a page break condition is met, this method is called,
        and the break is issued or not depending on the returned value.

        The default implementation returns a value according to the mode selected by `FPDF.set_auto_page_break()`.
        This method is called automatically and should not be called directly by the application.
        """
        return self.auto_page_break

    @check_page
    def cell(
        self,
        w=None,
        h=None,
        txt="",
        border=0,
        ln="DEPRECATED",
        align=Align.L,
        fill=False,
        link="",
        center="DEPRECATED",
        markdown=False,
        new_x=XPos.RIGHT,
        new_y=YPos.TOP,
    ):
        """
        Prints a cell (rectangular area) with optional borders, background color and
        character string. The upper-left corner of the cell corresponds to the current
        position. The text can be aligned or centered. After the call, the current
        position moves to the selected `new_x`/`new_y` position. It is possible to put a link
        on the text.

        If automatic page breaking is enabled and the cell goes beyond the limit, a
        page break is performed before outputting.

        Args:
            w (float): Cell width. Default value: None, meaning to fit text width.
                If 0, the cell extends up to the right margin.
            h (float): Cell height. Default value: None, meaning an height equal
                to the current font size.
            txt (str): String to print. Default value: empty string.
            border: Indicates if borders must be drawn around the cell.
                The value can be either a number (`0`: no border ; `1`: frame)
                or a string containing some or all of the following characters
                (in any order):
                `L`: left ; `T`: top ; `R`: right ; `B`: bottom. Default value: 0.
            new_x (fpdf.enums.XPos, str): New current position in x after the call. Default: RIGHT
            new_y (fpdf.enums.YPos, str): New current position in y after the call. Default: TOP
            ln (int): **DEPRECATED since 2.5.1**: Use `new_x` and `new_y` instead.
            align (fpdf.enums.Align, str): Allows to center or align the text inside the cell.
                Possible values are: `L` or empty string: left align (default value) ;
                `C`: center; `X`: center around current x; `R`: right align
            fill (bool): Indicates if the cell background must be painted (`True`)
                or transparent (`False`). Default value: False.
            link (str): optional link to add on the cell, internal
                (identifier returned by `FPDF.add_link`) or external URL.
            center (bool): **DEPRECATED** since 2.5.1:
                Use align="C" or align="X" instead.
            markdown (bool): enable minimal markdown-like markup to render part
                of text as bold / italics / underlined. Default to False.

        Returns: a boolean indicating if page break was triggered
        """
        if not self.font_family:
            raise FPDFException("No font set, you need to call set_font() beforehand")
        if isinstance(w, str) or isinstance(h, str):
            raise ValueError(
                "Parameter 'w' and 'h' must be numbers, not strings."
                " You can omit them by passing string content with txt="
            )
        if isinstance(border, int) and border not in (0, 1):
            warnings.warn(
                'Integer values for "border" parameter other than 1 are currently '
                "ignored"
            )
            border = 1
        new_x = XPos.coerce(new_x)
        new_y = YPos.coerce(new_y)
        if center == "DEPRECATED":
            center = False
        else:
            warnings.warn(
                'The parameter "center" is deprecated. Use align="C" or align="X" instead.',
                DeprecationWarning,
                stacklevel=3,
            )
        if ln != "DEPRECATED":
            # For backwards compatibility, if "ln" is used we overwrite "new_[xy]".
            if ln == 0:
                new_x = XPos.RIGHT
                new_y = YPos.TOP
            elif ln == 1:
                new_x = XPos.LMARGIN
                new_y = YPos.NEXT
            elif ln == 2:
                new_x = XPos.LEFT
                new_y = YPos.NEXT
            else:
                raise ValueError(
                    f'Invalid value for parameter "ln" ({ln}),'
                    " must be an int between 0 and 2."
                )
            warnings.warn(
                (
                    'The parameter "ln" is deprecated.'
                    f" Instead of ln={ln} use new_x=XPos.{new_x.name}, new_y=YPos.{new_y.name}."
                ),
                DeprecationWarning,
                stacklevel=3,
            )
        align = Align.coerce(align)
        if align == Align.J:
            raise ValueError(
                "cell() only produces one text line, justified alignment is not possible"
            )
        # Font styles preloading must be performed before any call to FPDF.get_string_width:
        txt = self.normalize_text(txt)
        styled_txt_frags = self._preload_font_styles(txt, markdown)
        return self._render_styled_text_line(
            TextLine(
                styled_txt_frags,
                text_width=0.0,
                number_of_spaces=0,
                justify=False,
                trailing_nl=False,
            ),
            w,
            h,
            border,
            new_x=new_x,
            new_y=new_y,
            align=align,
            fill=fill,
            link=link,
            center=center,
        )

    def _render_styled_text_line(
        self,
        text_line: TextLine,
        w: float = None,
        h: float = None,
        border: Union[str, int] = 0,
        new_x: XPos = XPos.RIGHT,
        new_y: YPos = YPos.TOP,
        align: Align = Align.L,
        fill: bool = False,
        link: str = "",
        center: bool = False,
    ):
        """
        Prints a cell (rectangular area) with optional borders, background color and
        character string. The upper-left corner of the cell corresponds to the current
        position. The text can be aligned, centered or justified. After the call, the
        current position moves to the requested new position. It is possible to put a
        link on the text.

        If automatic page breaking is enabled and the cell goes beyond the limit, a
        page break is performed before outputting.

        Args:
            text_line (TextLine instance): Contains the (possibly empty) tuple of
                fragments to render.
            w (float): Cell width. Default value: None, meaning to fit text width.
                If 0, the cell extends up to the right margin.
            h (float): Cell height. Default value: None, meaning an height equal
                to the current font size.
            border: Indicates if borders must be drawn around the cell.
                The value can be either a number (`0`: no border ; `1`: frame)
                or a string containing some or all of the following characters
                (in any order):
                `L`: left ; `T`: top ; `R`: right ; `B`: bottom. Default value: 0.
            new_x (fpdf.enums.XPos): New current position in x after the call.
            new_y (fpdf.enums.YPos): New current position in y after the call.
            align (fpdf.enums.Align): Allows to align the text inside the cell.
                Possible values are:
                `L` or empty string: left align (default value);
                `C`: center; `X`: center around current x; `R`: right align;
                `J`: justify (if more than one word)
            fill (bool): Indicates if the cell background must be painted (`True`)
                or transparent (`False`). Default value: False.
            link (str): optional link to add on the cell, internal
                (identifier returned by `FPDF.add_link`) or external URL.
            center (bool): **DEPRECATED since 2.5.1**: Use `align="C"` instead.
            markdown (bool): enable minimal markdown-like markup to render part
                of text as bold / italics / underlined. Default to False.

        Returns: a boolean indicating if page break was triggered
        """
        if not self.font_family:
            raise FPDFException("No font set, you need to call set_font() beforehand")
        if isinstance(border, int) and border not in (0, 1):
            warnings.warn(
                'Integer values for "border" parameter other than 1 are currently '
                "ignored"
            )
            border = 1
        styled_txt_width = text_line.text_width
        if not styled_txt_width:
            for i, frag in enumerate(text_line.fragments):
                unscaled_width = frag.get_width(initial_cs=i != 0)
                styled_txt_width += unscaled_width

        if w == 0:
            w = self.w - self.r_margin - self.x
        elif w is None:
            if not text_line.fragments:
                raise ValueError(
                    "A 'text_line' parameter with fragments must be provided if 'w' is None"
                )
            w = styled_txt_width + self.c_margin + self.c_margin
        max_font_size = 0  # how much height we need to accomodate.
        # currently all font sizes within a line are vertically aligned on the baseline.
        for frag in text_line.fragments:
            if frag.font_size > max_font_size:
                max_font_size = frag.font_size
        if h is None:
            h = max_font_size
        if align == Align.X:
            self.x -= w / 2
        if center:
            self.x = self.l_margin + (self.epw - w) / 2
        page_break_triggered = self._perform_page_break_if_need_be(h)
        sl = []
        k = self.k
        # pylint: disable=invalid-unary-operand-type
        # "h" can't actually be None
        if fill:
            op = "B" if border == 1 else "f"
            sl.append(
                f"{self.x * k:.2f} {(self.h - self.y) * k:.2f} "
                f"{w * k:.2f} {-h * k:.2f} re {op}"
            )
        elif border == 1:
            sl.append(
                f"{self.x * k:.2f} {(self.h - self.y) * k:.2f} "
                f"{w * k:.2f} {-h * k:.2f} re S"
            )
        # pylint: enable=invalid-unary-operand-type

        if isinstance(border, str):
            x = self.x
            y = self.y
            if "L" in border:
                sl.append(
                    f"{x * k:.2f} {(self.h - y) * k:.2f} m "
                    f"{x * k:.2f} {(self.h - (y + h)) * k:.2f} l S"
                )
            if "T" in border:
                sl.append(
                    f"{x * k:.2f} {(self.h - y) * k:.2f} m "
                    f"{(x + w) * k:.2f} {(self.h - y) * k:.2f} l S"
                )
            if "R" in border:
                sl.append(
                    f"{(x + w) * k:.2f} {(self.h - y) * k:.2f} m "
                    f"{(x + w) * k:.2f} {(self.h - (y + h)) * k:.2f} l S"
                )
            if "B" in border:
                sl.append(
                    f"{x * k:.2f} {(self.h - (y + h)) * k:.2f} m "
                    f"{(x + w) * k:.2f} {(self.h - (y + h)) * k:.2f} l S"
                )

        if self._record_text_quad_points:
            self._add_quad_points(self.x, self.y, w, h)

        s_start = self.x
        s_width, underlines = 0, []
        # We try to avoid modifying global settings for temporary changes.
        current_ws = frag_ws = 0.0
        current_char_vpos = CharVPos.LINE
        current_font = self.current_font
        current_text_mode = self.text_mode
        current_font_stretching = self.font_stretching
        current_char_spacing = self.char_spacing
        if text_line.fragments:
            if align == Align.R:
                dx = w - self.c_margin - styled_txt_width
            elif align in [Align.C, Align.X]:
                dx = (w - styled_txt_width) / 2
            else:
                dx = self.c_margin
            s_start += dx

            if self.fill_color != self.text_color:
                sl.append(self.text_color.serialize().lower())

            # do this once in advance
            u_space = escape_parens(" ".encode("utf-16-be").decode("latin-1"))
            word_spacing = 0
            if text_line.justify:
                # Don't rely on align==Align.J here.
                # If a line gets broken by an explicit '\n', then MultiLineBreak
                # will set its justify to False (end of paragraph).
                word_spacing = (
                    w - self.c_margin - self.c_margin - styled_txt_width
                ) / text_line.number_of_spaces

            sl.append(
                f"BT {(self.x + dx) * k:.2f} "
                f"{(self.h - self.y - 0.5 * h - 0.3 * max_font_size) * k:.2f} Td"
            )
            for i, frag in enumerate(text_line.fragments):
                if word_spacing and frag.font_stretching != 100:
                    # Space character is already stretched, extra spacing is absolute.
                    frag_ws = word_spacing * 100 / frag.font_stretching
                else:
                    frag_ws = word_spacing
                if current_font_stretching != frag.font_stretching:
                    current_font_stretching = frag.font_stretching
                    sl.append(f"{frag.font_stretching:.2f} Tz")
                if current_char_spacing != frag.char_spacing:
                    current_char_spacing = frag.char_spacing
                    sl.append(f"{frag.char_spacing:.2f} Tc")
                if current_font != frag.font or current_char_vpos != frag.char_vpos:
                    if current_char_vpos != frag.char_vpos:
                        current_char_vpos = frag.char_vpos
                    current_font = frag.font
                    sl.append(f"/F{frag.font['i']} {frag.font_size_pt:.2f} Tf")
                lift = frag.lift
                if lift != 0.0:
                    sl.append(f"{lift:.2f} Ts")
                if (
                    frag.text_mode != TextMode.FILL
                    or frag.text_mode != current_text_mode
                ):
                    current_text_mode = frag.text_mode
                    sl.append(f"{frag.text_mode} Tr {frag.line_width:.2f} w")

                if frag.is_ttf_font:
                    mapped_text = ""
                    for char in frag.string:
                        uni = ord(char)
                        mapped_text += chr(frag.font["subset"].pick(uni))
                    if word_spacing:
                        # "Tw" only has an effect on the ASCII space character and ignores
                        # space characters from unicode (TTF) fonts. As a workaround,
                        # we do word spacing using an adjustment before each space.
                        # Determine the index of the space character (" ") in the current
                        # subset and split words whenever this mapping code is found
                        words = mapped_text.split(
                            chr(frag.font["subset"].pick(ord(" ")))
                        )
                        words_strl = []
                        for i, word in enumerate(words):
                            word = escape_parens(
                                word.encode("utf-16-be").decode("latin-1")
                            )
                            if i == 0:
                                words_strl.append(f"({word})")
                            else:
                                adj = -(frag_ws * frag.k) * 1000 / frag.font_size_pt
                                words_strl.append(f"{adj:.3f}({u_space}{word})")
                        escaped_text = " ".join(words_strl)
                        sl.append(f"[{escaped_text}] TJ")
                    else:
                        escaped_text = escape_parens(
                            mapped_text.encode("utf-16-be").decode("latin-1")
                        )
                        sl.append(f"({escaped_text}) Tj")
                else:  # core fonts
                    if frag_ws != current_ws:
                        sl.append(f"{frag_ws * frag.k:.3f} Tw")
                        current_ws = frag_ws
                    escaped_text = escape_parens(frag.string)
                    sl.append(f"({escaped_text}) Tj")
                frag_width = frag.get_width(
                    initial_cs=i != 0
                ) + word_spacing * frag.characters.count(" ")
                if frag.underline:
                    underlines.append(
                        (self.x + dx + s_width, frag_width, frag.font, frag.font_size)
                    )
                if frag.url:
                    self.link(
                        x=self.x + dx + s_width,
                        y=self.y + (0.5 * h) - (0.5 * frag.font_size),
                        w=frag_width,
                        h=frag.font_size,
                        link=frag.url,
                    )
                s_width += frag_width

            sl.append("ET")

            for start_x, ul_w, ul_font, ul_font_size in underlines:
                sl.append(
                    self._do_underline(
                        start_x,
                        self.y + (0.5 * h) + (0.3 * ul_font_size),
                        ul_w,
                        ul_font,
                    )
                )
            if link:
                self.link(
                    self.x + dx,
                    self.y + (0.5 * h) - (0.5 * frag.font_size),
                    styled_txt_width,
                    frag.font_size,
                    link,
                )

        if sl:
            # If any PDF settings have been left modified, wrap the line
            # in a local context.
            # pylint: disable=too-many-boolean-expressions
            if (
                current_ws != 0.0
                or current_char_vpos != CharVPos.LINE
                or current_font != self.current_font
                or current_text_mode != self.text_mode
                or self.fill_color != self.text_color
                or current_font_stretching != self.font_stretching
                or current_char_spacing != self.char_spacing
            ):
                s = f"q {' '.join(sl)} Q"
            else:
                s = " ".join(sl)
            # pylint: enable=too-many-boolean-expressions
            self._out(s)
        # If the text is empty, h = max_font_size ends up as 0.
        # We still need a valid default height for self.ln() (issue #601).
        self._lasth = h or self.font_size

        # XPos.LEFT -> self.x stays the same
        if new_x == XPos.RIGHT:
            self.x += w
        elif new_x == XPos.START:
            self.x = s_start
        elif new_x == XPos.END:
            self.x = s_start + s_width
        elif new_x == XPos.WCONT:
            self.x = s_start + s_width - self.c_margin
        elif new_x == XPos.CENTER:
            self.x = s_start + s_width / 2.0
        elif new_x == XPos.LMARGIN:
            self.x = self.l_margin
        elif new_x == XPos.RMARGIN:
            self.x = self.w - self.r_margin

        # YPos.TOP:  -> self.y stays the same
        # YPos.LAST: -> self.y stays the same (single line)
        if new_y == YPos.NEXT:
            self.y += h
        if new_y == YPos.TMARGIN:
            self.y = self.t_margin
        if new_y == YPos.BMARGIN:
            self.y = self.h - self.b_margin

        return page_break_triggered

    def _add_quad_points(self, x, y, w, h):
        self._text_quad_points[self.page].extend(
            [
                x * self.k,
                (self.h - y) * self.k,
                (x + w) * self.k,
                (self.h - y) * self.k,
                x * self.k,
                (self.h - y - h) * self.k,
                (x + w) * self.k,
                (self.h - y - h) * self.k,
            ]
        )

    def _preload_font_styles(self, txt, markdown):
        """
        When Markdown styling is enabled, we require secondary fonts
        to ender text in bold & italics.
        This function ensure that those fonts are available.
        It needs to perform Markdown parsing,
        so we return the resulting `styled_txt_frags` tuple
        to avoid repeating this processing later on.
        """
        if not txt:
            return tuple()
        if not markdown:
            return tuple([Fragment(txt, self._get_current_graphics_state(), self.k)])
        prev_font_style = self.font_style
        styled_txt_frags = tuple(self._markdown_parse(txt))
        page = self.page
        # We set the current to page to zero so that
        # set_font() does not produce any text object on the stream buffer:
        self.page = 0
        if any("B" in frag.font_style for frag in styled_txt_frags):
            # Ensuring bold font is supported:
            self.set_font(style="B")
        if any("I" in frag.font_style for frag in styled_txt_frags):
            # Ensuring italics font is supported:
            self.set_font(style="I")
        for frag in styled_txt_frags:
            frag.font = self.fonts[frag.font_family + frag.font_style]
        # Restoring initial style:
        self.set_font(style=prev_font_style)
        self.page = page
        return styled_txt_frags

    def _markdown_parse(self, txt):
        "Split some text into fragments based on styling: **bold**, __italics__, --underlined--"
        txt_frag, in_bold, in_italics, in_underline = (
            [],
            "B" in self.font_style,
            "I" in self.font_style,
            bool(self.underline),
        )

        def frag():
            gstate = self._get_current_graphics_state()
            gstate["font_style"] = ("B" if in_bold else "") + (
                "I" if in_italics else ""
            )
            gstate["underline"] = in_underline
            nonlocal txt_frag
            fragment = Fragment(txt_frag, gstate, self.k)
            txt_frag = []
            return fragment

        while txt:
            is_marker = txt[:2] in (
                self.MARKDOWN_BOLD_MARKER,
                self.MARKDOWN_ITALICS_MARKER,
                self.MARKDOWN_UNDERLINE_MARKER,
            )
            half_marker = txt[0]
            # Check that previous & next characters are not identical to the marker:
            if (
                is_marker
                and (not txt_frag or txt_frag[0] != half_marker)
                and (len(txt) < 3 or txt[2] != half_marker)
            ):
                if txt_frag:
                    yield frag()
                if txt[:2] == self.MARKDOWN_BOLD_MARKER:
                    in_bold = not in_bold
                if txt[:2] == self.MARKDOWN_ITALICS_MARKER:
                    in_italics = not in_italics
                if txt[:2] == self.MARKDOWN_UNDERLINE_MARKER:
                    in_underline = not in_underline
                txt = txt[2:]
                continue
            is_link = self.MARKDOWN_LINK_REGEX.match(txt)
            if is_link:
                link_text, link_url, txt = is_link.groups()
                if txt_frag:
                    yield frag()
                gstate = self._get_current_graphics_state()
                gstate["underline"] = True
                if self.MARKDOWN_LINK_COLOR:
                    gstate["text_color"] = self.MARKDOWN_LINK_COLOR
                yield Fragment(list(link_text), gstate, self.k, url=link_url)
                continue
            txt_frag.append(txt[0])
            txt = txt[1:]
        if txt_frag:
            yield frag()

    def will_page_break(self, height):
        """
        Let you know if adding an element will trigger a page break,
        based on its height and the current ordinate (`y` position).

        Args:
            height (float): height of the section that would be added, e.g. a cell

        Returns: a boolean indicating if a page break would occur
        """
        return (
            # ensure that there is already some content on the page:
            self.y > self.t_margin
            and self.y + height > self.page_break_trigger
            and not self.in_footer
            and self.accept_page_break
        )

    def _perform_page_break_if_need_be(self, h):
        if self.will_page_break(h):
            LOGGER.debug(
                "Page break on page %d at y=%d for element of height %d > %d",
                self.page,
                self.y,
                h,
                self.page_break_trigger,
            )
            self._perform_page_break()
            return True
        return False

    def _perform_page_break(self):
        x = self.x
        self.add_page(same=True)
        self.x = x  # restore x but not y after drawing header

    def _has_next_page(self):
        return self.pages_count > self.page

    @check_page
    def multi_cell(
        self,
        w,
        h=None,
        txt="",
        border=0,
        align=Align.J,
        fill=False,
        split_only=False,
        link="",
        ln="DEPRECATED",
        max_line_height=None,
        markdown=False,
        print_sh=False,
        new_x=XPos.RIGHT,
        new_y=YPos.NEXT,
    ):
        """
        This method allows printing text with line breaks. They can be automatic
        (breaking at the most recent space or soft-hyphen character) as soon as the text
        reaches the right border of the cell, or explicit (via the `\\n` character).
        As many cells as necessary are stacked, one below the other.
        Text can be aligned, centered or justified. The cell block can be framed and
        the background painted.

        Args:
            w (float): cell width. If 0, they extend up to the right margin of the page.
            h (float): cell height. Default value: None, meaning to use the current font size.
            txt (str): string to print.
            border: Indicates if borders must be drawn around the cell.
                The value can be either a number (`0`: no border ; `1`: frame)
                or a string containing some or all of the following characters
                (in any order):
                `L`: left ; `T`: top ; `R`: right ; `B`: bottom. Default value: 0.
            align (fpdf.enums.Align, str): Allows to center or align the text.
                Possible values are:
                `J`: justify (default value); `L` or empty string: left align;
                `C`: center; `X`: center around current x; `R`: right align
            fill (bool): Indicates if the cell background must be painted (`True`)
                or transparent (`False`). Default value: False.
            split_only (bool): if `True`, does not output anything, only perform
                word-wrapping and return the resulting multi-lines array of strings.
            link (str): optional link to add on the cell, internal
                (identifier returned by `add_link`) or external URL.
            new_x (fpdf.enums.XPos, str): New current position in x after the call. Default: RIGHT
            new_y (fpdf.enums.YPos, str): New current position in y after the call. Default: NEXT
            ln (int): **DEPRECATED since 2.5.1**: Use `new_x` and `new_y` instead.
            max_line_height (float): optional maximum height of each sub-cell generated
            markdown (bool): enable minimal markdown-like markup to render part
                of text as bold / italics / underlined. Default to False.
            print_sh (bool): Treat a soft-hyphen (\\u00ad) as a normal printable
                character, instead of a line breaking opportunity. Default value: False

        Using `new_x=XPos.RIGHT, new_y=XPos.TOP, maximum height=pdf.font_size` is
        useful to build tables with multiline text in cells.

        Returns: a boolean indicating if page break was triggered,
            or if `split_only == True`: `txt` splitted into lines in an array
        """
        if isinstance(w, str) or isinstance(h, str):
            raise ValueError(
                "Parameter 'w' and 'h' must be numbers, not strings."
                " You can omit them by passing string content with txt="
            )
        new_x = XPos.coerce(new_x)
        new_y = YPos.coerce(new_y)
        if ln != "DEPRECATED":
            # For backwards compatibility, if "ln" is used we overwrite "new_[xy]".
            if ln == 0:
                new_x = XPos.RIGHT
                new_y = YPos.NEXT
            elif ln == 1:
                new_x = XPos.LMARGIN
                new_y = YPos.NEXT
            elif ln == 2:
                new_x = XPos.LEFT
                new_y = YPos.NEXT
            elif ln == 3:
                new_x = XPos.RIGHT
                new_y = YPos.TOP
            else:
                raise ValueError(
                    f'Invalid value for parameter "ln" ({ln}),'
                    " must be an int between 0 and 3."
                )
            warnings.warn(
                (
                    'The parameter "ln" is deprecated.'
                    f" Instead of ln={ln} use new_x=XPos.{new_x.name}, new_y=YPos.{new_y.name}."
                ),
                DeprecationWarning,
                stacklevel=3,
            )
        align = Align.coerce(align)

        page_break_triggered = False
        if split_only:
            self._out = lambda *args, **kwargs: None
            self.add_page = lambda *args, **kwargs: None
            self._perform_page_break_if_need_be = lambda *args, **kwargs: None

        if h is None:
            h = self.font_size
        # If width is 0, set width to available width between margins
        if w == 0:
            w = self.w - self.r_margin - self.x
        maximum_allowed_width = w - 2 * self.c_margin

        # Calculate text length
        txt = self.normalize_text(txt)
        normalized_string = txt.replace("\r", "")
        styled_text_fragments = self._preload_font_styles(normalized_string, markdown)

        prev_font_style, prev_underline = self.font_style, self.underline
        prev_x, prev_y = self.x, self.y

        if not border:
            border = ""
        elif border == 1:
            border = "LTRB"

        text_lines = []
        multi_line_break = MultiLineBreak(
            styled_text_fragments,
            justify=(align == Align.J),
            print_sh=print_sh,
        )
        text_line = multi_line_break.get_line_of_given_width(maximum_allowed_width)
        while (text_line) is not None:
            text_lines.append(text_line)
            text_line = multi_line_break.get_line_of_given_width(maximum_allowed_width)

        if not text_lines:  # ensure we display at least one cell - cf. issue #349
            text_lines = [
                TextLine(
                    "",
                    text_width=0,
                    number_of_spaces=0,
                    justify=False,
                    trailing_nl=False,
                )
            ]
        if align == Align.X:
            prev_x = self.x
        should_render_bottom_blank_cell = False
        for text_line_index, text_line in enumerate(text_lines):
            is_last_line = text_line_index == len(text_lines) - 1
            should_render_bottom_blank_cell = False
            if max_line_height is not None and h > max_line_height:
                current_cell_height = max_line_height
                h -= current_cell_height
                if is_last_line:
                    if h > 0 and len(text_lines) > 1:
                        should_render_bottom_blank_cell = True
                    else:
                        h += current_cell_height
                        current_cell_height = h
            else:
                current_cell_height = h
            has_line_after = not is_last_line or should_render_bottom_blank_cell
            new_page = self._render_styled_text_line(
                text_line,
                w,
                h=current_cell_height,
                border="".join(
                    (
                        "T" if "T" in border and text_line_index == 0 else "",
                        "L" if "L" in border else "",
                        "R" if "R" in border else "",
                        "B" if "B" in border and not has_line_after else "",
                    )
                ),
                new_x=new_x if not has_line_after else XPos.LEFT,
                new_y=new_y if not has_line_after else YPos.NEXT,
                align=Align.L if (align == Align.J and is_last_line) else align,
                fill=fill,
                link=link,
            )
            page_break_triggered = page_break_triggered or new_page
            if not is_last_line and align == Align.X:
                # prevent cumulative shift to the left
                self.x = prev_x
        if should_render_bottom_blank_cell:
            new_page = self._render_styled_text_line(
                TextLine(
                    "",
                    text_width=0,
                    number_of_spaces=0,
                    justify=False,
                    trailing_nl=False,
                ),
                w,
                h=h,
                border="".join(
                    (
                        "L" if "L" in border else "",
                        "R" if "R" in border else "",
                        "B" if "B" in border else "",
                    )
                ),
                new_x=new_x,
                new_y=new_y,
                fill=fill,
                link=link,
            )
            page_break_triggered = page_break_triggered or new_page
        if new_page and new_y == YPos.TOP:
            # When a page jump is performed and the requested y is TOP,
            # pretend we started at the top of the text block on the new page.
            # cf. test_multi_cell_table_with_automatic_page_break
            prev_y = self.y
        if text_line.trailing_nl and new_y in (YPos.LAST, YPos.NEXT):
            # The line renderer can't handle trailing newlines in the text.
            self.ln()

        if new_y == YPos.TOP:  # We may have jumped a few lines -> reset
            self.y = prev_y

        if split_only:
            # restore writing functions
            del self.add_page
            del self._out
            del self._perform_page_break_if_need_be
            self.set_xy(prev_x, prev_y)  # restore location
            result = []
            for text_line in text_lines:
                characters = []
                for frag in text_line.fragments:
                    characters.extend(frag.characters)
                result.append("".join(characters))
            return result
        if markdown:
            if self.font_style != prev_font_style:
                self.font_style = prev_font_style
                self.current_font = self.fonts[self.font_family + self.font_style]
            self.underline = prev_underline

        return page_break_triggered

    @check_page
    def write(
        self, h: float = None, txt: str = "", link: str = "", print_sh: bool = False
    ):
        """
        Prints text from the current position.
        When the right margin is reached, a line break occurs at the most recent
        space or soft-hyphen character, and text continues from the left margin.
        A manual break happens any time the \\n character is met,
        Upon method exit, the current position is left just at the end of the text.

        Args:
            h (float): line height. Default value: None, meaning to use the current font size.
            txt (str): text content
            link (str): optional link to add on the text, internal
                (identifier returned by `FPDF.add_link`) or external URL.
            print_sh (bool): Treat a soft-hyphen (\\u00ad) as a normal printable
                character, instead of a line breaking opportunity. Default value: False
        """
        if not self.font_family:
            raise FPDFException("No font set, you need to call set_font() beforehand")
        if isinstance(h, str):
            raise ValueError(
                "Parameter 'h' must be a number, not a string."
                " You can omit it by passing string content with txt="
            )
        if h is None:
            h = self.font_size

        page_break_triggered = False
        normalized_string = self.normalize_text(txt).replace("\r", "")
        styled_text_fragments = self._preload_font_styles(normalized_string, False)

        text_lines = []
        multi_line_break = MultiLineBreak(
            styled_text_fragments,
            print_sh=print_sh,
        )
        # first line from current x position to right margin
        first_width = self.w - self.x - self.r_margin
        text_line = multi_line_break.get_line_of_given_width(
            first_width - 2 * self.c_margin, wordsplit=False
        )
        # remaining lines fill between margins
        full_width = self.w - self.l_margin - self.r_margin
        fit_width = full_width - 2 * self.c_margin
        while (text_line) is not None:
            text_lines.append(text_line)
            text_line = multi_line_break.get_line_of_given_width(fit_width)
        if not text_lines:
            return False

        for text_line_index, text_line in enumerate(text_lines):
            if text_line_index == 0:
                line_width = first_width
            else:
                line_width = full_width
                self.ln()
            new_page = self._render_styled_text_line(
                text_line,
                line_width,
                h=h,
                border=0,
                new_x=XPos.WCONT,
                new_y=YPos.TOP,
                align=Align.L,
                fill=False,
                link=link,
            )
            page_break_triggered = page_break_triggered or new_page
        if text_line.trailing_nl:
            # The line renderer can't handle trailing newlines in the text.
            self.ln()
        return page_break_triggered

    @check_page
    def image(
        self,
        name,
        x=None,
        y=None,
        w=0,
        h=0,
        type="",
        link="",
        title=None,
        alt_text=None,
        dims=None,
    ):
        """
        Put an image on the page.

        The size of the image on the page can be specified in different ways:
        * explicit width and height (expressed in user units)
        * one explicit dimension, the other being calculated automatically
          in order to keep the original proportions
        * no explicit dimension, in which case the image is put at 72 dpi.

        **Remarks**:
        * if an image is used several times, only one copy is embedded in the file.
        * when using an animated GIF, only the first frame is used.

        Args:
            name: either a string representing a file path to an image, an URL to an image,
                an io.BytesIO, or a instance of `PIL.Image.Image`
            x (float, fpdf.enums.Align): optional horizontal position where to put the image on the page.
                If not specified or equal to None, the current abscissa is used.
                `Align.C` can also be passed to center the image horizontally;
                and `Align.R` to place it along the right page margin
            y (float): optional vertical position where to put the image on the page.
                If not specified or equal to None, the current ordinate is used.
                After the call, the current ordinate is moved to the bottom of the image
            w (float): optional width of the image. If not specified or equal to zero,
                it is automatically calculated from the image size.
                Pass `pdf.epw` to scale horizontally to the full page width.
            h (float): optional height of the image. If not specified or equal to zero,
                it is automatically calculated from the image size.
                Pass `pdf.eph` to scale horizontally to the full page height.
            type (str): [**DEPRECATED since 2.2.0**] unused, will be removed in a later version.
            link (str): optional link to add on the image, internal
                (identifier returned by `FPDF.add_link`) or external URL.
            title (str): optional. Currently, never seem rendered by PDF readers.
            alt_text (str): optional alternative text describing the image,
                for accessibility purposes. Displayed by some PDF readers on hover.
            dims (Tuple[float]): optional dimensions as a tuple (width, height) to resize the image
                before storing it in the PDF. Note that those are the **intrinsic** image dimensions,
                but the image will still be rendered on the page with the width (`w`) and height (`h`)
                provided as parameters. Note also that the `.oversized_images` attribute of FPDF
                provides an automated way to auto-adjust those intrinsic image dimensions.
        """
        if type:
            warnings.warn(
                '"type" parameter is deprecated, unused and will soon be removed',
                DeprecationWarning,
                stacklevel=3,
            )
        if str(name).endswith(".svg"):
            # Insert it as a PDF path:
            img = load_image(str(name))
            return self._vector_image(img, x, y, w, h, link, title, alt_text)
        if isinstance(name, str):
            img = None
        elif isinstance(name, Image):
            bytes = name.tobytes()
            img_hash = hashlib.new("md5", usedforsecurity=False)  # nosec B324
            img_hash.update(bytes)
            name, img = img_hash.hexdigest(), name
        elif isinstance(name, io.BytesIO):
            bytes = name.getvalue().strip()
            if _is_svg(bytes):
                return self._vector_image(name, x, y, w, h, link, title, alt_text)
            img_hash = hashlib.new("md5", usedforsecurity=False)  # nosec B324
            img_hash.update(bytes)
            name, img = img_hash.hexdigest(), name
        else:
            name, img = str(name), name
        info = self.images.get(name)
        if info:
            info["usages"] += 1
        else:
            if not img:
                img = load_image(name)
            info = get_img_info(img, self.image_filter, dims)
            info["i"] = len(self.images) + 1
            info["usages"] = 1
            self.images[name] = info
        if "smask" in info:
            self._set_min_pdf_version("1.4")

        # Automatic width and height calculation if needed
        if w == 0 and h == 0:  # Put image at 72 dpi
            w = info["w"] / self.k
            h = info["h"] / self.k
        elif w == 0:
            w = h * info["w"] / info["h"]
        elif h == 0:
            h = w * info["h"] / info["w"]

        if self.oversized_images and info["usages"] == 1 and not dims:
            info = self._downscale_image(name, img, info, w, h)

        # Flowing mode
        if y is None:
            self._perform_page_break_if_need_be(h)
            y = self.y
            self.y += h
        if x is None:
            x = self.x
        elif not isinstance(x, Number):
            x = Align.coerce(x)
            if x == Align.C:
                x = (self.w - w) / 2
            elif x == Align.R:
                x = self.w - w - self.r_margin
            elif x == Align.L:
                x = self.l_margin
            else:
                raise ValueError(f"Unsupported 'x' value passed to .image(): {x}")

        stream_content = (
            f"q {w * self.k:.2f} 0 0 {h * self.k:.2f} {x * self.k:.2f} "
            f"{(self.h - y - h) * self.k:.2f} cm /I{info['i']} Do Q"
        )
        if title or alt_text:
            with self._marked_sequence(title=title, alt_text=alt_text):
                self._out(stream_content)
        else:
            self._out(stream_content)
        if link:
            self.link(x, y, w, h, link)

        return {**info, "rendered_width": w, "rendered_height": h}

    def _vector_image(
        self,
        img: io.BytesIO,
        x=None,
        y=None,
        w=0,
        h=0,
        link="",
        title=None,
        alt_text=None,
    ):
        svg = SVGObject(img.getvalue())
        if w == 0 and h == 0:
            if not svg.width or not svg.height:
                raise ValueError(
                    '<svg> has no "height" / "width": w= or h= must be provided to FPDF.image()'
                )
            w = (
                svg.width * self.epw / 100
                if isinstance(svg.width, Percent)
                else svg.width
            )
            h = (
                svg.height * self.eph / 100
                if isinstance(svg.height, Percent)
                else svg.height
            )
        else:
            _, _, vw, vh = svg.viewbox
            if w == 0:
                w = vw * h / vh
            elif h == 0:
                h = vh * w / vw

        # Flowing mode
        if y is None:
            self._perform_page_break_if_need_be(h)
            y = self.y
            self.y += h
        if x is None:
            x = self.x

        _, _, path = svg.transform_to_rect_viewport(
            scale=1, width=w, height=h, ignore_svg_top_attrs=True
        )
        path.transform = path.transform @ drawing.Transform.translation(x, y)

        old_x, old_y = self.x, self.y
        try:
            self.set_xy(0, 0)
            if title or alt_text:
                with self._marked_sequence(title=title, alt_text=alt_text):
                    self.draw_path(path)
            else:
                self.draw_path(path)
        finally:
            self.set_xy(old_x, old_y)
        if link:
            self.link(x, y, w, h, link)

        return {"rendered_width": w, "rendered_height": h}

    def _downscale_image(self, name, img, info, w, h):
        width_in_pt, height_in_pt = w * self.k, h * self.k
        lowres_name = f"lowres-{name}"
        lowres_info = self.images.get(lowres_name)
        if (
            info["w"] > width_in_pt * self.oversized_images_ratio
            and info["h"] > height_in_pt * self.oversized_images_ratio
        ):
            factor = (
                min(info["w"] / width_in_pt, info["h"] / height_in_pt)
                / self.oversized_images_ratio
            )
            if self.oversized_images.lower().startswith("warn"):
                LOGGER.warning(
                    "OVERSIZED: Image %s with size %.1fx%.1fpx is rendered at size %.1fx%.1fpt."
                    " Set pdf.oversized_images = 'DOWNSCALE' to reduce embedded image size by a factor %.1f",
                    name,
                    info["w"],
                    info["h"],
                    width_in_pt,
                    height_in_pt,
                    factor,
                )
            elif self.oversized_images.lower() == "downscale":
                dims = (
                    round(width_in_pt * self.oversized_images_ratio),
                    round(height_in_pt * self.oversized_images_ratio),
                )
                info["usages"] -= 1  # no need to embed the high-resolution image
                if lowres_info:  # Great, we've already done the job!
                    info = lowres_info
                    if info["w"] * info["h"] < dims[0] * dims[1]:
                        # The existing low-res image is too small, we need a bigger low-res image:
                        info.update(
                            get_img_info(
                                img or load_image(name), self.image_filter, dims
                            )
                        )
                        LOGGER.debug(
                            "OVERSIZED: Updated low-res image with name=%s id=%d to dims=%s",
                            lowres_name,
                            info["i"],
                            dims,
                        )
                    info["usages"] += 1
                else:
                    info = get_img_info(
                        img or load_image(name), self.image_filter, dims
                    )
                    info["i"] = len(self.images) + 1
                    info["usages"] = 1
                    self.images[lowres_name] = info
                    LOGGER.debug(
                        "OVERSIZED: Generated new low-res image with name=%s dims=%s id=%d",
                        lowres_name,
                        dims,
                        info["i"],
                    )
            else:
                raise ValueError(
                    f"Invalid value for attribute .oversized_images: {self.oversized_images}"
                )
        elif lowres_info:
            # Embedding the same image in high-res after inserting it in low-res:
            lowres_info.update(info)
            del self.images[name]
            info = lowres_info
        return info

    @contextmanager
    def _marked_sequence(self, **kwargs):
        """
        Can receive as named arguments any of the entries described in section 14.7.2 'Structure Hierarchy'
        of the PDF spec: iD, a, c, r, lang, e, actualText
        """
        mcid = self.struct_builder.next_mcid_for_page(self.page)
        struct_elem = self._add_marked_content(
            struct_type="/Figure", mcid=mcid, **kwargs
        )
        start_page = self.page
        self._out(f"/P <</MCID {mcid}>> BDC")
        yield struct_elem
        if self.page != start_page:
            raise FPDFException("A page jump occured inside a marked sequence")
        self._out("EMC")

    def _add_marked_content(self, **kwargs):
        """
        Can receive as named arguments any of the entries described in section 14.7.2 'Structure Hierarchy'
        of the PDF spec: iD, a, c, r, lang, e, actualText
        """
        struct_elem, spid = self.struct_builder.add_marked_content(
            page_number=self.page, **kwargs
        )
        self.pages[self.page].struct_parents = spid
        self._set_min_pdf_version("1.4")  # due to using /MarkInfo
        return struct_elem

    @check_page
    def ln(self, h=None):
        """
        Line Feed.
        The current abscissa goes back to the left margin and the ordinate increases by
        the amount passed as parameter.

        Args:
            h (float): The height of the break.
                By default, the value equals the height of the last printed cell.
        """
        self.x = self.l_margin
        self.y += self._lasth if h is None else h

    def get_x(self):
        """Returns the abscissa of the current position."""
        return self.x

    def set_x(self, x):
        """
        Defines the abscissa of the current position.
        If the value provided is negative, it is relative to the right of the page.

        Args:
            x (float): the new current abscissa
        """
        self.x = x if x >= 0 else self.w + x

    def get_y(self):
        """Returns the ordinate of the current position."""
        if self._in_unbreakable:
            raise FPDFException(
                "Using get_y() inside an unbreakable() code block is error-prone"
            )
        return self.y

    def set_y(self, y):
        """
        Moves the current abscissa back to the left margin and sets the ordinate.
        If the value provided is negative, it is relative to the bottom of the page.

        Args:
            y (float): the new current ordinate
        """
        self.x = self.l_margin
        self.y = y if y >= 0 else self.h + y

    def set_xy(self, x, y):
        """
        Defines the abscissa and ordinate of the current position.
        If the values provided are negative, they are relative respectively to the right and bottom of the page.

        Args:
            x (float): the new current abscissa
            y (float): the new current ordinate
        """
        self.set_y(y)
        self.set_x(x)

    def normalize_text(self, txt):
        """Check that text input is in the correct format/encoding"""
        # - for TTF unicode fonts: unicode object (utf8 encoding)
        # - for built-in fonts: string instances (encoding: latin-1, cp1252)
        if not self.is_ttf_font and self.core_fonts_encoding:
            try:
                return txt.encode(self.core_fonts_encoding).decode("latin-1")
            except UnicodeEncodeError as error:
                raise FPDFUnicodeEncodingException(
                    text_index=error.start,
                    character=txt[error.start],
                    font_name=self.font_family + self.font_style,
                ) from error
        return txt

    def sign_pkcs12(
        self,
        pkcs_filepath,
        password=None,
        hashalgo="sha256",
        contact_info=None,
        location=None,
        signing_time=None,
        reason=None,
        flags=(AnnotationFlag.PRINT, AnnotationFlag.LOCKED),
    ):
        """
        Args:
            pkcs_filepath (str): file path to a .pfx or .p12 PKCS12,
                in the binary format described by RFC 7292
            password (bytes-like): the password to use to decrypt the data.
                `None` if the PKCS12 is not encrypted.
            hashalgo (str): hashing algorithm used, passed to `hashlib.new`
            contact_info (str): optional information provided by the signer to enable
                a recipient to contact the signer to verify the signature
            location (str): optional CPU host name or physical location of the signing
            signing_time (datetime): optional time of signing
            reason (str): optional signing reason
            flags (Tuple[fpdf.enums.AnnotationFlag], Tuple[str]): optional list of flags defining annotation properties
        """
        if not signer:
            raise EnvironmentError(
                "endesive.signer not available - PDF cannot be signed - Try: pip install endesive"
            )
        with open(pkcs_filepath, "rb") as pkcs_file:
            key, cert, extra_certs = pkcs12.load_key_and_certificates(
                pkcs_file.read(), password
            )
        self.sign(
            key=key,
            cert=cert,
            extra_certs=extra_certs,
            hashalgo=hashalgo,
            contact_info=contact_info,
            location=location,
            signing_time=signing_time,
            reason=reason,
            flags=flags,
        )

    @check_page
    def sign(
        self,
        key,
        cert,
        extra_certs=(),
        hashalgo="sha256",
        contact_info=None,
        location=None,
        signing_time=None,
        reason=None,
        flags=(AnnotationFlag.PRINT, AnnotationFlag.LOCKED),
    ):
        """
        Args:
            key: certificate private key
            cert (cryptography.x509.Certificate): certificate
            extra_certs (list[cryptography.x509.Certificate]): list of additional PKCS12 certificates
            hashalgo (str): hashing algorithm used, passed to `hashlib.new`
            contact_info (str): optional information provided by the signer to enable
                a recipient to contact the signer to verify the signature
            location (str): optional CPU host name or physical location of the signing
            signing_time (datetime): optional time of signing
            reason (str): optional signing reason
            flags (Tuple[fpdf.enums.AnnotationFlag], Tuple[str]): optional list of flags defining annotation properties
        """
        if not signer:
            raise EnvironmentError(
                "endesive.signer not available - PDF cannot be signed - Try: pip install endesive"
            )
        if self._sign_key:
            raise FPDFException(".sign* methods should be called only once")

        self._sign_key = key
        self._sign_cert = cert
        self._sign_extra_certs = extra_certs
        self._sign_hashalgo = hashalgo
        self._sign_time = signing_time or self.creation_date

        annotation = PDFAnnotation(
            "Widget",
            field_type="Sig",
            x=0,
            y=0,
            width=0,
            height=0,
            flags=flags,
            title="signature",
            value=Signature(
                contact_info=contact_info,
                location=location,
                m=format_date(self._sign_time),
                reason=reason,
            ),
        )
        self.pages[self.page].annots.append(annotation)

    def _substitute_page_number(self):
        substituted = False
        # Replace number of pages in fonts using subsets (unicode)
        alias = self.str_alias_nb_pages.encode("utf-16-be")
        encoded_nb = str(self.pages_count).encode("utf-16-be")
        for page in self.pages.values():
            substituted |= alias in page.contents
            page.contents = page.contents.replace(alias, encoded_nb)
        # Now repeat for no pages in non-subset fonts
        alias = self.str_alias_nb_pages.encode("latin-1")
        encoded_nb = str(self.pages_count).encode("latin-1")
        for page in self.pages.values():
            substituted |= alias in page.contents
            page.contents = page.contents.replace(alias, encoded_nb)
        if substituted:
            LOGGER.debug(
                "Substitution of '%s' was performed in the document",
                self.str_alias_nb_pages,
            )

    def _insert_table_of_contents(self):
        # Doc has been closed but we want to write to self.pages[self.page] instead of self.buffer:
        tocp = self._toc_placeholder
        prev_page, prev_y = self.page, self.y
        self.page, self.y = tocp.start_page, tocp.y
        # Disabling footer & header, as they have already been called:
        self.footer = lambda *args, **kwargs: None
        self.header = lambda *args, **kwargs: None
        tocp.render_function(self, self._outline)
        expected_final_page = tocp.start_page + tocp.pages - 1
        if self.page != expected_final_page:
            too = "many" if self.page > expected_final_page else "few"
            error_msg = f"The rendering function passed to FPDF.insert_toc_placeholder triggered too {too} page breaks: "
            error_msg += f"ToC ended on page {self.page} while it was expected to span exactly {tocp.pages} pages"
            raise FPDFException(error_msg)
        self.page, self.y = prev_page, prev_y
        del self.footer
        del self.header

    def file_id(self):
        """
        This method can be overridden in inherited classes
        in order to define a custom file identifier.
        Its output must have the format "<hex_string1><hex_string2>".
        If this method returns a falsy value (None, empty string),
        no /ID will be inserted in the generated PDF document.
        """
        return -1

    def _default_file_id(self, buffer):
        # Quoting the PDF 1.7 spec, section 14.4 File Identifiers:
        # > The value of this entry shall be an array of two byte strings.
        # > The first byte string shall be a permanent identifier
        # > based on the contents of the file at the time it was originally created
        # > and shall not change when the file is incrementally updated.
        # > The second byte string shall be a changing identifier
        # > based on the file’s contents at the time it was last updated.
        # > When a file is first written, both identifiers shall be set to the same value.
        id_hash = hashlib.new("md5", usedforsecurity=False)  # nosec B324
        id_hash.update(buffer)
        if self.creation_date:
            id_hash.update(self.creation_date.strftime("%Y%m%d%H%M%S").encode("utf8"))
        hash_hex = id_hash.hexdigest().upper()
        return f"<{hash_hex}><{hash_hex}>"

    def _do_underline(self, x, y, w, current_font=None):
        "Draw an horizontal line starting from (x, y) with a length equal to 'w'"
        if current_font is None:
            current_font = self.current_font
        up = current_font["up"]
        ut = current_font["ut"]
        return (
            f"{x * self.k:.2f} "
            f"{(self.h - y + up / 1000 * self.font_size) * self.k:.2f} "
            f"{w * self.k:.2f} {-ut / 1000 * self.font_size_pt:.2f} re f"
        )

    def _out(self, s):
        if self.buffer:
            raise FPDFException(
                "Content cannot be added on a finalized document, after calling output()"
            )
        if not isinstance(s, bytes):
            if not isinstance(s, str):
                s = str(s)
            s = s.encode("latin1")
        if not self.page:
            raise FPDFException("No page open, you need to call add_page() first")
        self.pages[self.page].contents += s + b"\n"

    @check_page
    def interleaved2of5(self, txt, x, y, w=1, h=10):
        """Barcode I2of5 (numeric), adds a 0 if odd length"""
        narrow = w / 3
        wide = w

        # wide/narrow codes for the digits
        bar_char = {
            "0": "nnwwn",
            "1": "wnnnw",
            "2": "nwnnw",
            "3": "wwnnn",
            "4": "nnwnw",
            "5": "wnwnn",
            "6": "nwwnn",
            "7": "nnnww",
            "8": "wnnwn",
            "9": "nwnwn",
            "A": "nn",
            "Z": "wn",
        }
        # The caller should do this, or we can't rotate the thing.
        # self.set_fill_color(0)
        code = txt
        # add leading zero if code-length is odd
        if len(code) % 2 != 0:
            code = f"0{code}"

        # add start and stop codes
        code = f"AA{code.lower()}ZA"

        for i in range(0, len(code), 2):
            # choose next pair of digits
            char_bar = code[i]
            char_space = code[i + 1]
            # check whether it is a valid digit
            if char_bar not in bar_char:
                raise RuntimeError(f'Char "{char_bar}" invalid for I25:')
            if char_space not in bar_char:
                raise RuntimeError(f'Char "{char_space}" invalid for I25: ')

            # create a wide/narrow-seq (first digit=bars, second digit=spaces)
            seq = "".join(
                f"{cb}{cs}" for cb, cs in zip(bar_char[char_bar], bar_char[char_space])
            )

            for bar_index, char in enumerate(seq):
                # set line_width depending on value
                line_width = narrow if char == "n" else wide

                # draw every second value, the other is represented by space
                if bar_index % 2 == 0:
                    self.rect(x, y, line_width, h, "F")

                x += line_width

    @check_page
    def code39(self, txt, x, y, w=1.5, h=5):
        """Barcode 3of9"""
        dim = {"w": w, "n": w / 3}
        if not txt.startswith("*") or not txt.endswith("*"):
            warnings.warn(
                "Code 39 input must start and end with a '*' character to be valid."
                " This method does not insert it automatically."
            )
        chars = {
            "0": "nnnwwnwnn",
            "1": "wnnwnnnnw",
            "2": "nnwwnnnnw",
            "3": "wnwwnnnnn",
            "4": "nnnwwnnnw",
            "5": "wnnwwnnnn",
            "6": "nnwwwnnnn",
            "7": "nnnwnnwnw",
            "8": "wnnwnnwnn",
            "9": "nnwwnnwnn",
            "A": "wnnnnwnnw",
            "B": "nnwnnwnnw",
            "C": "wnwnnwnnn",
            "D": "nnnnwwnnw",
            "E": "wnnnwwnnn",
            "F": "nnwnwwnnn",
            "G": "nnnnnwwnw",
            "H": "wnnnnwwnn",
            "I": "nnwnnwwnn",
            "J": "nnnnwwwnn",
            "K": "wnnnnnnww",
            "L": "nnwnnnnww",
            "M": "wnwnnnnwn",
            "N": "nnnnwnnww",
            "O": "wnnnwnnwn",
            "P": "nnwnwnnwn",
            "Q": "nnnnnnwww",
            "R": "wnnnnnwwn",
            "S": "nnwnnnwwn",
            "T": "nnnnwnwwn",
            "U": "wwnnnnnnw",
            "V": "nwwnnnnnw",
            "W": "wwwnnnnnn",
            "X": "nwnnwnnnw",
            "Y": "wwnnwnnnn",
            "Z": "nwwnwnnnn",
            "-": "nwnnnnwnw",
            ".": "wwnnnnwnn",
            " ": "nwwnnnwnn",
            "*": "nwnnwnwnn",
            "$": "nwnwnwnnn",
            "/": "nwnwnnnwn",
            "+": "nwnnnwnwn",
            "%": "nnnwnwnwn",
        }
        # The caller should do this, or we can't rotate the thing.
        # self.set_fill_color(0)
        for c in txt.upper():
            if c not in chars:
                raise RuntimeError(f'Invalid char "{c}" for Code39')
            for i, d in enumerate(chars[c]):
                if i % 2 == 0:
                    self.rect(x, y, dim[d], h, "F")
                x += dim[d]
            x += dim["n"]

    @check_page
    @contextmanager
    def rect_clip(self, x, y, w, h):
        """
        Context manager that defines a rectangular crop zone,
        useful to render only part of an image.

        Args:
            x (float): abscissa of the clipping region top left corner
            y (float): ordinate of the clipping region top left corner
            w (float): width of the clipping region
            h (float): height of the clipping region
        """
        self._out(
            (
                f"q {x * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - y - h) * self.k:.2f} {w * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{h * self.k:.2f} re W n"
            )
        )
        yield
        self._out("Q")

    @check_page
    @contextmanager
    def elliptic_clip(self, x, y, w, h):
        """
        Context manager that defines an elliptic crop zone,
        useful to render only part of an image.

        Args:
            x (float): abscissa of the clipping region top left corner
            y (float): ordinate of the clipping region top left corner
            w (float): ellipse width
            h (float): ellipse height
        """
        self._out("q")
        self._draw_ellipse(x, y, w, h, "W n")
        yield
        self._out("Q")

    @check_page
    @contextmanager
    def round_clip(self, x, y, r):
        """
        Context manager that defines a circular crop zone,
        useful to render only part of an image.

        Args:
            x (float): abscissa of the clipping region top left corner
            y (float): ordinate of the clipping region top left corner
            r (float): radius of the clipping region
        """
        with self.elliptic_clip(x, y, r, r):
            yield

    @contextmanager
    def unbreakable(self):
        """
        Ensures that all rendering performed in this context appear on a single page
        by performing page break beforehand if need be.

        Notes
        -----

        Using this method means to duplicate the FPDF `bytearray` buffer:
        when generating large PDFs, doubling memory usage may be troublesome.
        """
        prev_page, prev_y = self.page, self.y
        recorder = FPDFRecorder(self, accept_page_break=False)
        recorder.page_break_triggered = False
        self._in_unbreakable = True
        LOGGER.debug("Starting unbreakable block")
        yield recorder
        y_scroll = recorder.y - prev_y + (recorder.page - prev_page) * self.eph
        if prev_y + y_scroll > self.page_break_trigger or recorder.page > prev_page:
            LOGGER.debug("Performing page jump due to unbreakable height")
            recorder.rewind()
            # pylint: disable=protected-access
            # Performing this call through .pdf so that it does not get recorded & replayed:
            recorder.pdf._perform_page_break()
            recorder.replay()
            recorder.page_break_triggered = True
        self._in_unbreakable = False
        LOGGER.debug("Ending unbreakable block")

    @contextmanager
    def offset_rendering(self):
        """
        All rendering performed in this context is made on a dummy FPDF object.
        This allows to test the results of some operations on the global layout
        before performing them "for real".
        """
        prev_page, prev_y = self.page, self.y
        recorder = FPDFRecorder(self, accept_page_break=False)
        recorder.page_break_triggered = False
        yield recorder
        y_scroll = recorder.y - prev_y + (recorder.page - prev_page) * self.eph
        if prev_y + y_scroll > self.page_break_trigger or recorder.page > prev_page:
            recorder.page_break_triggered = True
        recorder.rewind()

    @check_page
    def insert_toc_placeholder(self, render_toc_function, pages=1):
        """
        Configure Table Of Contents rendering at the end of the document generation,
        and reserve some vertical space right now in order to insert it.

        Args:
            render_toc_function (function): a function that will be invoked to render the ToC.
                This function will receive 2 parameters: `pdf`, an instance of FPDF, and `outline`,
                a list of `OutlineSection`.
            pages (int): the number of pages that the Table of Contents will span,
                including the current one that will. As many page breaks as the value of this argument
                will occur immediately after calling this method.
        """
        if not callable(render_toc_function):
            raise TypeError(
                f"The first argument must be a callable, got: {type(render_toc_function)}"
            )
        if self._toc_placeholder:
            raise FPDFException(
                "A placeholder for the table of contents has already been defined"
                f" on page {self._toc_placeholder.start_page}"
            )
        self._toc_placeholder = ToCPlaceholder(
            render_toc_function, self.page, self.y, pages
        )
        for _ in range(pages):
            self.add_page()

    def set_section_title_styles(
        self,
        level0,
        level1=None,
        level2=None,
        level3=None,
        level4=None,
        level5=None,
        level6=None,
    ):
        """
        Defines a style for section titles.
        After calling this method, calls to `FPDF.start_section` will render section names visually.

        Args:
            level0 (TitleStyle): style for the top level section titles
            level1 (TitleStyle): optional style for the level 1 section titles
            level2 (TitleStyle): optional style for the level 2 section titles
            level3 (TitleStyle): optional style for the level 3 section titles
            level4 (TitleStyle): optional style for the level 4 section titles
            level5 (TitleStyle): optional style for the level 5 section titles
            level6 (TitleStyle): optional style for the level 6 section titles
        """
        for level in (level0, level1, level2, level3, level4, level5, level6):
            if level and not isinstance(level, TitleStyle):
                raise TypeError(
                    f"Arguments must all be TitleStyle instances, got: {type(level)}"
                )
        self.section_title_styles = {
            0: level0,
            1: level1,
            2: level2,
            3: level3,
            4: level4,
            5: level5,
            6: level6,
        }

    @check_page
    def start_section(self, name, level=0, strict=True):
        """
        Start a section in the document outline.
        If section_title_styles have been configured,
        render the section name visually as a title.

        Args:
            name (str): section name
            level (int): section level in the document outline. 0 means top-level.
        """
        if level < 0:
            raise ValueError('"level" mut be equal or greater than zero')
        if strict and self._outline and level > self._outline[-1].level + 1:
            raise ValueError(
                f"Incoherent hierarchy: cannot start a level {level} section after a level {self._outline[-1].level} one"
            )
        dest = DestinationXYZ(self.page, top=self.h_pt - self.y * self.k)
        outline_struct_elem = None
        if self.section_title_styles:
            # We first check if adding this multi-cell will trigger a page break:
            with self.offset_rendering() as pdf:
                # pylint: disable=protected-access
                with pdf._apply_style(pdf.section_title_styles[level]):
                    pdf.multi_cell(
                        w=pdf.epw,
                        h=pdf.font_size,
                        txt=name,
                        new_x=XPos.LMARGIN,
                        new_y=YPos.NEXT,
                    )
            if pdf.page_break_triggered:
                # If so, we trigger a page break manually beforehand:
                self.add_page()
            with self._marked_sequence(title=name) as struct_elem:
                outline_struct_elem = struct_elem
                with self._apply_style(self.section_title_styles[level]):
                    self.multi_cell(
                        w=self.epw,
                        h=self.font_size,
                        txt=name,
                        new_x=XPos.LMARGIN,
                        new_y=YPos.NEXT,
                    )
        self._outline.append(
            OutlineSection(name, level, self.page, dest, outline_struct_elem)
        )

    @contextmanager
    def _apply_style(self, title_style):
        prev_font = (self.font_family, self.font_style, self.font_size_pt)
        self.set_font(
            title_style.font_family, title_style.font_style, title_style.font_size_pt
        )
        prev_text_color = self.text_color
        if title_style.color is not None:
            if isinstance(title_style.color, Sequence):
                self.set_text_color(*title_style.color)
            else:
                self.set_text_color(title_style.color)
        prev_underline = self.underline
        self.underline = title_style.underline
        if title_style.t_margin:
            self.ln(title_style.t_margin)
        if title_style.l_margin:
            self.set_x(title_style.l_margin)
        yield
        if title_style.b_margin:
            self.ln(title_style.b_margin)
        self.set_font(*prev_font)
        self.text_color = prev_text_color
        self.underline = prev_underline

    def output(
        self, name="", dest="", linearize=False, output_producer_class=OutputProducer
    ):
        """
        Output PDF to some destination.
        The method first calls [close](close.md) if necessary to terminate the document.
        After calling this method, content cannot be added to the document anymore.

        By default the bytearray buffer is returned.
        If a `name` is given, the PDF is written to a new file.

        Args:
            name (str): optional File object or file path where to save the PDF under
            dest (str): [**DEPRECATED since 2.3.0**] unused, will be removed in a later version
            output_producer_class (class): use a custom class for PDF file generation
        """
        if dest:
            warnings.warn(
                '"dest" parameter is deprecated, unused and will soon be removed',
                DeprecationWarning,
                stacklevel=2,
            )
        # Finish document if necessary:
        if not self.buffer:
            if self.page == 0:
                self.add_page()
            # Generating final page footer:
            self.in_footer = True
            self.footer()
            self.in_footer = False
            # Generating .buffer based on .pages:
            if self._toc_placeholder:
                self._insert_table_of_contents()
            if self.str_alias_nb_pages:
                self._substitute_page_number()
            if linearize:
                output_producer_class = LinearizedOutputProducer
            output_producer = output_producer_class(self)
            self.buffer = output_producer.bufferize()
        if name:
            if isinstance(name, os.PathLike):
                name.write_bytes(self.buffer)
            elif isinstance(name, str):
                Path(name).write_bytes(self.buffer)
            else:
                name.write(self.buffer)
            return None
        return self.buffer

Ancestors

Class variables

var HTML2FPDF_CLASS

Render basic HTML to FPDF

var MARKDOWN_BOLD_MARKER
var MARKDOWN_ITALICS_MARKER
var MARKDOWN_UNDERLINE_MARKER

Instance variables

var accept_page_break

Whenever a page break condition is met, this method is called, and the break is issued or not depending on the returned value.

The default implementation returns a value according to the mode selected by FPDF.set_auto_page_break(). This method is called automatically and should not be called directly by the application.

Expand source code
@property
def accept_page_break(self):
    """
    Whenever a page break condition is met, this method is called,
    and the break is issued or not depending on the returned value.

    The default implementation returns a value according to the mode selected by `FPDF.set_auto_page_break()`.
    This method is called automatically and should not be called directly by the application.
    """
    return self.auto_page_break
var core_fonts_encoding

Font encoding, Latin-1 by default

var default_page_dimensions

Return a pair (width, height) in the unit specified to FPDF constructor

Expand source code
@property
def default_page_dimensions(self):
    "Return a pair (width, height) in the unit specified to FPDF constructor"
    return (
        (self.dw_pt, self.dh_pt)
        if self.def_orientation == "P"
        else (self.dh_pt, self.dw_pt)
    )
var eph

Effective page height: the page height minus its vertical margins.

Expand source code
@property
def eph(self):
    """
    Effective page height: the page height minus its vertical margins.
    """
    return self.h - self.t_margin - self.b_margin
var epw

Effective page width: the page width minus its horizontal margins.

Expand source code
@property
def epw(self):
    """
    Effective page width: the page width minus its horizontal margins.
    """
    return self.w - self.l_margin - self.r_margin
var is_ttf_font
Expand source code
@property
def is_ttf_font(self):
    return self.current_font.get("type") == "TTF"
var page_layout
Expand source code
@property
def page_layout(self):
    return self._page_layout
var page_mode
Expand source code
@property
def page_mode(self):
    return self._page_mode
var pages_count

Returns the total pages of the document.

Expand source code
@property
def pages_count(self):
    """
    Returns the total pages of the document.
    """
    return len(self.pages)

Methods

def add_action(self, action, x, y, w, h)

Puts an Action annotation on a rectangular area of the page.

Args

action : Action
the action to add
x : float
horizontal position (from the left) to the left side of the link rectangle
y : float
vertical position (from the top) to the bottom side of the link rectangle
w : float
width of the link rectangle
h : float
height of the link rectangle
Expand source code
@check_page
def add_action(self, action, x, y, w, h):
    """
    Puts an Action annotation on a rectangular area of the page.

    Args:
        action (fpdf.actions.Action): the action to add
        x (float): horizontal position (from the left) to the left side of the link rectangle
        y (float): vertical position (from the top) to the bottom side of the link rectangle
        w (float): width of the link rectangle
        h (float): height of the link rectangle
    """
    annotation = AnnotationDict(
        "Action",
        x * self.k,
        self.h_pt - y * self.k,
        w * self.k,
        h * self.k,
        action=action,
    )
    self.pages[self.page].annots.append(annotation)
    return annotation
def add_font(self, family=None, style='', fname=None, uni='DEPRECATED')

Imports a TrueType or OpenType font and makes it available for later calls to the FPDF.set_font() method.

You will find more information on the "Unicode" documentation page.

Args

family : str
optional name of the font family. Used as a reference for FPDF.set_font(). If not provided, use the base name of the fname font path, without extension.
style : str
font style. "B" for bold, "I" for italic.
fname : str
font file name. You can specify a relative or full path. If the file is not found, it will be searched in FPDF_FONT_DIR.
uni : bool
[DEPRECATED since 2.5.1] unused
Expand source code
def add_font(self, family=None, style="", fname=None, uni="DEPRECATED"):
    """
    Imports a TrueType or OpenType font and makes it available
    for later calls to the `FPDF.set_font()` method.

    You will find more information on the "Unicode" documentation page.

    Args:
        family (str): optional name of the font family. Used as a reference for `FPDF.set_font()`.
            If not provided, use the base name of the `fname` font path, without extension.
        style (str): font style. "B" for bold, "I" for italic.
        fname (str): font file name. You can specify a relative or full path.
            If the file is not found, it will be searched in `FPDF_FONT_DIR`.
        uni (bool): [**DEPRECATED since 2.5.1**] unused
    """
    if not fname:
        raise ValueError('"fname" parameter is required')

    ext = splitext(str(fname))[1].lower()
    if ext not in (".otf", ".otc", ".ttf", ".ttc"):
        raise ValueError(
            f"Unsupported font file extension: {ext}."
            " add_font() used to accept .pkl file as input, but for security reasons"
            " this feature is deprecated since v2.5.1 and has been removed in v2.5.3."
        )

    if uni != "DEPRECATED":
        warnings.warn(
            '"uni" parameter is deprecated, unused and will soon be removed',
            DeprecationWarning,
            stacklevel=2,
        )

    style = "".join(sorted(style.upper()))
    if any(letter not in "BI" for letter in style):
        raise ValueError(
            f"Unknown style provided (only B & I letters are allowed): {style}"
        )

    for parent in (".", FPDF_FONT_DIR):
        if not parent:
            continue

        if (Path(parent) / fname).exists():
            font_file_path = Path(parent) / fname
            break
    else:
        raise FileNotFoundError(f"TTF Font file not found: {fname}")

    if family is None:
        family = font_file_path.stem

    fontkey = f"{family.lower()}{style}"
    # Check if font already added or one of the core fonts
    if fontkey in self.fonts or fontkey in self.core_fonts:
        warnings.warn(f"Core font or font already added '{fontkey}': doing nothing")
        return
    font = ttLib.TTFont(font_file_path)

    scale = 1000 / font["head"].unitsPerEm
    default_width = round(scale * font["hmtx"].metrics[".notdef"][0])

    try:
        cap_height = font["OS/2"].sCapHeight
    except AttributeError:
        cap_height = font["hhea"].ascent

    # entry for the PDF font descriptor specifying various characteristics of the font
    flags = FontDescriptorFlags.SYMBOLIC
    if font["post"].isFixedPitch:
        flags |= FontDescriptorFlags.FIXED_PITCH
    if font["post"].italicAngle != 0:
        flags |= FontDescriptorFlags.ITALIC
    if font["OS/2"].usWeightClass >= 600:
        flags |= FontDescriptorFlags.FORCE_BOLD

    desc = PDFFontDescriptor(
        ascent=round(font["hhea"].ascent * scale),
        descent=round(font["hhea"].descent * scale),
        cap_height=round(cap_height * scale),
        flags=flags,
        font_b_box=(
            f"[{font['head'].xMin * scale:.0f} {font['head'].yMin * scale:.0f}"
            f" {font['head'].xMax * scale:.0f} {font['head'].yMax * scale:.0f}]"
        ),
        italic_angle=int(font["post"].italicAngle),
        stem_v=round(50 + int(pow((font["OS/2"].usWeightClass / 65), 2))),
        missing_width=default_width,
    )

    # a map unicode_char -> char_width
    char_widths = defaultdict(lambda: default_width)
    for char in font.getBestCmap().keys():
        # take glyph associated to char
        glyph = font.getBestCmap()[char]

        # take width associated to glyph
        w = font["hmtx"].metrics[glyph][0]

        # probably this check could be deleted
        if w == 65535:
            w = 0

        char_widths[char] = round(scale * w + 0.001)  # ROUND_HALF_UP

    # include numbers in the subset! (if alias present)
    # ensure that alias is mapped 1-by-1 additionally (must be replaceable)
    sbarr = "\x00 "
    if self.str_alias_nb_pages:
        sbarr += "0123456789"
        sbarr += self.str_alias_nb_pages

    self.fonts[fontkey] = {
        "i": len(self.fonts) + 1,
        "type": "TTF",
        "name": re.sub("[ ()]", "", font["name"].getBestFullName()),
        "desc": desc,
        "up": round(font["post"].underlinePosition * scale),
        "ut": round(font["post"].underlineThickness * scale),
        "cw": char_widths,
        "ttffile": font_file_path,
        "fontkey": fontkey,
        "subset": SubsetMap(map(ord, sbarr)),
    }

Creates a new internal link and returns its identifier. An internal link is a clickable area which directs to another place within the document.

The identifier can then be passed to the FPDF.cell(), FPDF.write(), FPDF.image() or FPDF.link() methods.

Args

y : float
optional ordinate of target position. The default value is 0 (top of page).
x : float
optional abscissa of target position. The default value is 0 (top of page).
page : int
optional number of target page. -1 indicates the current page, which is the default value.
zoom : float
optional new zoom level after following the link. Currently ignored by Sumatra PDF Reader, but observed by Adobe Acrobat reader.
Expand source code
def add_link(self, y=0, x=0, page=-1, zoom="null"):
    """
    Creates a new internal link and returns its identifier.
    An internal link is a clickable area which directs to another place within the document.

    The identifier can then be passed to the `FPDF.cell()`, `FPDF.write()`, `FPDF.image()`
    or `FPDF.link()` methods.

    Args:
        y (float): optional ordinate of target position.
            The default value is 0 (top of page).
        x (float): optional abscissa of target position.
            The default value is 0 (top of page).
        page (int): optional number of target page.
            -1 indicates the current page, which is the default value.
        zoom (float): optional new zoom level after following the link.
            Currently ignored by Sumatra PDF Reader, but observed by Adobe Acrobat reader.
    """
    link = DestinationXYZ(
        self.page if page == -1 else page,
        top=self.h_pt - y * self.k,
        left=x * self.k,
        zoom=zoom,
    )
    link_index = len(self.links) + 1
    self.links[link_index] = link
    return link_index
def add_page(self, orientation='', format='', same=False, duration=0, transition=None)

Adds a new page to the document. If a page is already present, the FPDF.footer() method is called first. Then the page is added, the current position is set to the top-left corner, with respect to the left and top margins, and the FPDF.header() method is called.

Args

orientation : str
"portrait" (can be abbreviated "P") or "landscape" (can be abbreviated "L"). Default to "portrait".
format : str
"a3", "a4", "a5", "letter", "legal" or a tuple (width, height). Default to "a4".
same : bool
indicates to use the same page format as the previous page. Default to False.
duration : float
optional page’s display duration, i.e. the maximum length of time, in seconds, that the page is displayed in presentation mode, before the viewer application automatically advances to the next page. Can be configured globally through the .page_duration FPDF property. As of june 2021, onored by Adobe Acrobat reader, but ignored by Sumatra PDF reader.
transition : Transition child class
optional visual transition to use when moving from another page to the given page during a presentation. Can be configured globally through the .page_transition FPDF property. As of june 2021, onored by Adobe Acrobat reader, but ignored by Sumatra PDF reader.
Expand source code
def add_page(
    self, orientation="", format="", same=False, duration=0, transition=None
):
    """
    Adds a new page to the document.
    If a page is already present, the `FPDF.footer()` method is called first.
    Then the page  is added, the current position is set to the top-left corner,
    with respect to the left and top margins, and the `FPDF.header()` method is called.

    Args:
        orientation (str): "portrait" (can be abbreviated "P")
            or "landscape" (can be abbreviated "L"). Default to "portrait".
        format (str): "a3", "a4", "a5", "letter", "legal" or a tuple
            (width, height). Default to "a4".
        same (bool): indicates to use the same page format as the previous page.
            Default to False.
        duration (float): optional page’s display duration, i.e. the maximum length of time,
            in seconds, that the page is displayed in presentation mode,
            before the viewer application automatically advances to the next page.
            Can be configured globally through the `.page_duration` FPDF property.
            As of june 2021, onored by Adobe Acrobat reader, but ignored by Sumatra PDF reader.
        transition (Transition child class): optional visual transition to use when moving
            from another page to the given page during a presentation.
            Can be configured globally through the `.page_transition` FPDF property.
            As of june 2021, onored by Adobe Acrobat reader, but ignored by Sumatra PDF reader.
    """
    if self.buffer:
        raise FPDFException(
            "A page cannot be added on a closed document, after calling output()"
        )
    family = self.font_family
    style = f"{self.font_style}U" if self.underline else self.font_style
    size = self.font_size_pt
    lw = self.line_width
    dc = self.draw_color
    fc = self.fill_color
    tc = self.text_color
    stretching = self.font_stretching
    char_spacing = self.char_spacing

    if self.page > 0:
        # Page footer
        self.in_footer = True
        self.footer()
        self.in_footer = False

    # Start new page
    self._beginpage(
        orientation,
        format,
        same,
        duration or self.page_duration,
        transition or self.page_transition,
        new_page=not self._has_next_page(),
    )

    if self.page_background:
        if isinstance(self.page_background, tuple):
            self.set_fill_color(*self.page_background)
            self.rect(0, 0, self.w, self.h, style="F")
            self.set_fill_color(*(255 * v for v in fc.colors))
        else:
            self.image(self.page_background, 0, 0, self.w, self.h)

    self._out("2 J")  # Set line cap style to square
    self.line_width = lw  # Set line width
    self._out(f"{lw * self.k:.2f} w")

    # Set font
    if family:
        self.set_font(family, style, size)

    # Set colors
    self.draw_color = dc
    if dc != self.DEFAULT_DRAW_COLOR:
        self._out(dc.serialize().upper())
    self.fill_color = fc
    if fc != self.DEFAULT_FILL_COLOR:
        self._out(fc.serialize().lower())
    self.text_color = tc

    # BEGIN Page header
    self.header()

    if self.line_width != lw:  # Restore line width
        self.line_width = lw
        self._out(f"{lw * self.k:.2f} w")

    if family:
        self.set_font(family, style, size)  # Restore font

    if self.draw_color != dc:  # Restore colors
        self.draw_color = dc
        self._out(dc.serialize().upper())
    if self.fill_color != fc:
        self.fill_color = fc
        self._out(fc.serialize().lower())
    self.text_color = tc

    if stretching != 100:  # Restore stretching
        self.set_stretching(stretching)
    if char_spacing != 0:
        self.set_char_spacing(char_spacing)
    # END Page header
def add_text_markup_annotation(self, type, text, quad_points, title='', color=(1, 1, 0), modification_time=None, page=None)

Adds a text markup annotation on some quadrilateral areas of the page.

Args

type : TextMarkupType, str
"Highlight", "Underline", "Squiggly" or "StrikeOut"
text : str
text of the annotation
quad_points : tuple
array of 8 × n numbers specifying the coordinates of n quadrilaterals in default user space that comprise the region in which the link should be activated. The coordinates for each quadrilateral are given in the order: x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 x4 y4 specifying the four vertices of the quadrilateral in counterclockwise order
title : str
the text label that shall be displayed in the title bar of the annotation’s pop-up window when open and active. This entry shall identify the user who added the annotation.
color : tuple
a tuple of numbers in the range 0.0 to 1.0, representing a colour used for the title bar of the annotation’s pop-up window. Defaults to yellow.
modification_time : datetime
date and time when the annotation was most recently modified
page : int
index of the page where this annotation is added
Expand source code
@check_page
def add_text_markup_annotation(
    self,
    type,
    text,
    quad_points,
    title="",
    color=(1, 1, 0),
    modification_time=None,
    page=None,
):
    """
    Adds a text markup annotation on some quadrilateral areas of the page.

    Args:
        type (fpdf.enums.TextMarkupType, str): "Highlight", "Underline", "Squiggly" or "StrikeOut"
        text (str): text of the annotation
        quad_points (tuple): array of 8 × n numbers specifying the coordinates of n quadrilaterals
            in default user space that comprise the region in which the link should be activated.
            The coordinates for each quadrilateral are given in the order: x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 x4 y4
            specifying the four vertices of the quadrilateral in counterclockwise order
        title (str): the text label that shall be displayed in the title bar of the annotation’s
            pop-up window when open and active. This entry shall identify the user who added the annotation.
        color (tuple): a tuple of numbers in the range 0.0 to 1.0, representing a colour used for
            the title bar of the annotation’s pop-up window. Defaults to yellow.
        modification_time (datetime): date and time when the annotation was most recently modified
        page (int): index of the page where this annotation is added
    """
    self._set_min_pdf_version("1.6")
    type = TextMarkupType.coerce(type).value
    if modification_time is None:
        modification_time = self.creation_date
    if page is None:
        page = self.page
    x_min = min(quad_points[0::2])
    y_min = min(quad_points[1::2])
    x_max = max(quad_points[0::2])
    y_max = max(quad_points[1::2])
    annotation = AnnotationDict(
        type,
        contents=text,
        x=y_min,
        y=y_max,
        width=x_max - x_min,
        height=y_max - y_min,
        color=color,
        modification_time=modification_time,
        title=title,
        quad_points=quad_points,
    )
    self.pages[page].annots.append(annotation)
    return annotation
def alias_nb_pages(self, alias='{nb}')

Defines an alias for the total number of pages. It will be substituted as the document is closed.

This is useful to insert the number of pages of the document at a time when this number is not known by the program.

This substitution can be disabled for performances reasons, by calling alias_nb_pages(None).

Args

alias : str
the alias. Defaults to "{nb}".

Notes

When using this feature with the FPDF.cell() / FPDF.multi_cell() methods, or the .underline attribute of FPDF class, the width of the text rendered will take into account the alias length, not the length of the "actual number of pages" string, which can causes slight positioning differences.

Expand source code
def alias_nb_pages(self, alias="{nb}"):
    """
    Defines an alias for the total number of pages.
    It will be substituted as the document is closed.

    This is useful to insert the number of pages of the document
    at a time when this number is not known by the program.

    This substitution can be disabled for performances reasons, by calling `alias_nb_pages(None)`.

    Args:
        alias (str): the alias. Defaults to "{nb}".

    Notes
    -----

    When using this feature with the `FPDF.cell` / `FPDF.multi_cell` methods,
    or the `.underline` attribute of `FPDF` class,
    the width of the text rendered will take into account the alias length,
    not the length of the "actual number of pages" string,
    which can causes slight positioning differences.
    """
    self.str_alias_nb_pages = alias
def arc(self, x, y, a, start_angle, end_angle, b=None, inclination=0, clockwise=False, start_from_center=False, end_at_center=False, style=None)

Outputs an arc. It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

Args

a : float
Semi-major axis diameter.
b : float
Semi-minor axis diameter, if None, equals to a (default: None).
start_angle : float
Start angle of the arc (in degrees).
end_angle : float
End angle of the arc (in degrees).
inclination : float
Inclination of the arc in respect of the x-axis (default: 0).
clockwise : bool
Way of drawing the arc (True: clockwise, False: counterclockwise) (default: False).
start_from_center : bool
Start drawing from the center of the circle (default: False).
end_at_center : bool
End drawing at the center of the circle (default: False).
style : RenderStyle, str
Optional style of rendering. Allowed values are:
  • D or None: draw border. This is the default value.
  • F: fill
  • DF or FD: draw and fill
Expand source code
@check_page
def arc(
    self,
    x,
    y,
    a,
    start_angle,
    end_angle,
    b=None,
    inclination=0,
    clockwise=False,
    start_from_center=False,
    end_at_center=False,
    style=None,
):
    """
    Outputs an arc.
    It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

    Args:
        a (float): Semi-major axis diameter.
        b (float): Semi-minor axis diameter, if None, equals to a (default: None).
        start_angle (float): Start angle of the arc (in degrees).
        end_angle (float): End angle of the arc (in degrees).
        inclination (float): Inclination of the arc in respect of the x-axis (default: 0).
        clockwise (bool): Way of drawing the arc (True: clockwise, False: counterclockwise) (default: False).
        start_from_center (bool): Start drawing from the center of the circle (default: False).
        end_at_center (bool): End drawing at the center of the circle (default: False).
        style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Allowed values are:

        * `D` or None: draw border. This is the default value.
        * `F`: fill
        * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
    """
    style = RenderStyle.coerce(style)

    if b is None:
        b = a

    a /= 2
    b /= 2

    cx = x + a
    cy = y + b

    # Functions used only to construct other points of the bezier curve
    def deg_to_rad(deg):
        return deg * math.pi / 180

    def angle_to_param(angle):
        angle = deg_to_rad(angle % 360)
        eta = math.atan2(math.sin(angle) / b, math.cos(angle) / a)

        if eta < 0:
            eta += 2 * math.pi
        return eta

    theta = deg_to_rad(inclination)
    cos_theta = math.cos(theta)
    sin_theta = math.sin(theta)

    def evaluate(eta):
        a_cos_eta = a * math.cos(eta)
        b_sin_eta = b * math.sin(eta)

        return [
            cx + a_cos_eta * cos_theta - b_sin_eta * sin_theta,
            cy + a_cos_eta * sin_theta + b_sin_eta * cos_theta,
        ]

    def derivative_evaluate(eta):
        a_sin_eta = a * math.sin(eta)
        b_cos_eta = b * math.cos(eta)

        return [
            -a_sin_eta * cos_theta - b_cos_eta * sin_theta,
            -a_sin_eta * sin_theta + b_cos_eta * cos_theta,
        ]

    # Calculating start_eta and end_eta so that
    #   start_eta < end_eta   <= start_eta + 2*PI if counterclockwise
    #   end_eta   < start_eta <= end_eta + 2*PI   if clockwise
    start_eta = angle_to_param(start_angle)
    end_eta = angle_to_param(end_angle)

    if not clockwise and end_eta <= start_eta:
        end_eta += 2 * math.pi
    elif clockwise and end_eta >= start_eta:
        start_eta += 2 * math.pi

    start_point = evaluate(start_eta)

    # Move to the start point
    if start_from_center:
        self._out(f"{cx * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy) * self.k:.2f} m")
        self._out(
            f"{start_point[0] * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - start_point[1]) * self.k:.2f} l"
        )
    else:
        self._out(
            f"{start_point[0] * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - start_point[1]) * self.k:.2f} m"
        )

    # Number of curves to use, maximal segment angle is 2*PI/max_curves
    max_curves = 4
    n = min(
        max_curves, math.ceil(abs(end_eta - start_eta) / (2 * math.pi / max_curves))
    )
    d_eta = (end_eta - start_eta) / n

    alpha = math.sin(d_eta) * (math.sqrt(4 + 3 * math.tan(d_eta / 2) ** 2) - 1) / 3

    eta2 = start_eta
    p2 = evaluate(eta2)
    p2_prime = derivative_evaluate(eta2)

    for i in range(n):
        p1 = p2
        p1_prime = p2_prime

        eta2 += d_eta
        p2 = evaluate(eta2)
        p2_prime = derivative_evaluate(eta2)

        control_point_1 = [p1[0] + alpha * p1_prime[0], p1[1] + alpha * p1_prime[1]]
        control_point_2 = [p2[0] - alpha * p2_prime[0], p2[1] - alpha * p2_prime[1]]

        end = ""
        if i == n - 1 and not end_at_center:
            end = f" {style.operator}"

        self._out(
            (
                f"{control_point_1[0] * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - control_point_1[1]) * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{control_point_2[0] * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - control_point_2[1]) * self.k:.2f} "
                f"{p2[0] * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - p2[1]) * self.k:.2f} c" + end
            )
        )

    if end_at_center:
        if start_from_center:
            self._out(f"h {style.operator}")
        else:
            self._out(
                f"{cx * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - cy) * self.k:.2f} l {style.operator}"
            )
def cell(self, w=None, h=None, txt='', border=0, ln='DEPRECATED', align=Align.L, fill=False, link='', center='DEPRECATED', markdown=False, new_x=XPos.RIGHT, new_y=YPos.TOP)

Prints a cell (rectangular area) with optional borders, background color and character string. The upper-left corner of the cell corresponds to the current position. The text can be aligned or centered. After the call, the current position moves to the selected new_x/new_y position. It is possible to put a link on the text.

If automatic page breaking is enabled and the cell goes beyond the limit, a page break is performed before outputting.

Args

w : float
Cell width. Default value: None, meaning to fit text width. If 0, the cell extends up to the right margin.
h : float
Cell height. Default value: None, meaning an height equal to the current font size.
txt : str
String to print. Default value: empty string.
border
Indicates if borders must be drawn around the cell. The value can be either a number (0: no border ; 1: frame) or a string containing some or all of the following characters (in any order): L: left ; T: top ; R: right ; B: bottom. Default value: 0.
new_x : XPos, str
New current position in x after the call. Default: RIGHT
new_y : YPos, str
New current position in y after the call. Default: TOP
ln : int
DEPRECATED since 2.5.1: Use new_x and new_y instead.
align : Align, str
Allows to center or align the text inside the cell. Possible values are: L or empty string: left align (default value) ; C: center; X: center around current x; R: right align
fill : bool
Indicates if the cell background must be painted (True) or transparent (False). Default value: False.
link : str
optional link to add on the cell, internal (identifier returned by FPDF.add_link()) or external URL.
center : bool
DEPRECATED since 2.5.1: Use align="C" or align="X" instead.
markdown : bool
enable minimal markdown-like markup to render part of text as bold / italics / underlined. Default to False.

Returns: a boolean indicating if page break was triggered

Expand source code
@check_page
def cell(
    self,
    w=None,
    h=None,
    txt="",
    border=0,
    ln="DEPRECATED",
    align=Align.L,
    fill=False,
    link="",
    center="DEPRECATED",
    markdown=False,
    new_x=XPos.RIGHT,
    new_y=YPos.TOP,
):
    """
    Prints a cell (rectangular area) with optional borders, background color and
    character string. The upper-left corner of the cell corresponds to the current
    position. The text can be aligned or centered. After the call, the current
    position moves to the selected `new_x`/`new_y` position. It is possible to put a link
    on the text.

    If automatic page breaking is enabled and the cell goes beyond the limit, a
    page break is performed before outputting.

    Args:
        w (float): Cell width. Default value: None, meaning to fit text width.
            If 0, the cell extends up to the right margin.
        h (float): Cell height. Default value: None, meaning an height equal
            to the current font size.
        txt (str): String to print. Default value: empty string.
        border: Indicates if borders must be drawn around the cell.
            The value can be either a number (`0`: no border ; `1`: frame)
            or a string containing some or all of the following characters
            (in any order):
            `L`: left ; `T`: top ; `R`: right ; `B`: bottom. Default value: 0.
        new_x (fpdf.enums.XPos, str): New current position in x after the call. Default: RIGHT
        new_y (fpdf.enums.YPos, str): New current position in y after the call. Default: TOP
        ln (int): **DEPRECATED since 2.5.1**: Use `new_x` and `new_y` instead.
        align (fpdf.enums.Align, str): Allows to center or align the text inside the cell.
            Possible values are: `L` or empty string: left align (default value) ;
            `C`: center; `X`: center around current x; `R`: right align
        fill (bool): Indicates if the cell background must be painted (`True`)
            or transparent (`False`). Default value: False.
        link (str): optional link to add on the cell, internal
            (identifier returned by `FPDF.add_link`) or external URL.
        center (bool): **DEPRECATED** since 2.5.1:
            Use align="C" or align="X" instead.
        markdown (bool): enable minimal markdown-like markup to render part
            of text as bold / italics / underlined. Default to False.

    Returns: a boolean indicating if page break was triggered
    """
    if not self.font_family:
        raise FPDFException("No font set, you need to call set_font() beforehand")
    if isinstance(w, str) or isinstance(h, str):
        raise ValueError(
            "Parameter 'w' and 'h' must be numbers, not strings."
            " You can omit them by passing string content with txt="
        )
    if isinstance(border, int) and border not in (0, 1):
        warnings.warn(
            'Integer values for "border" parameter other than 1 are currently '
            "ignored"
        )
        border = 1
    new_x = XPos.coerce(new_x)
    new_y = YPos.coerce(new_y)
    if center == "DEPRECATED":
        center = False
    else:
        warnings.warn(
            'The parameter "center" is deprecated. Use align="C" or align="X" instead.',
            DeprecationWarning,
            stacklevel=3,
        )
    if ln != "DEPRECATED":
        # For backwards compatibility, if "ln" is used we overwrite "new_[xy]".
        if ln == 0:
            new_x = XPos.RIGHT
            new_y = YPos.TOP
        elif ln == 1:
            new_x = XPos.LMARGIN
            new_y = YPos.NEXT
        elif ln == 2:
            new_x = XPos.LEFT
            new_y = YPos.NEXT
        else:
            raise ValueError(
                f'Invalid value for parameter "ln" ({ln}),'
                " must be an int between 0 and 2."
            )
        warnings.warn(
            (
                'The parameter "ln" is deprecated.'
                f" Instead of ln={ln} use new_x=XPos.{new_x.name}, new_y=YPos.{new_y.name}."
            ),
            DeprecationWarning,
            stacklevel=3,
        )
    align = Align.coerce(align)
    if align == Align.J:
        raise ValueError(
            "cell() only produces one text line, justified alignment is not possible"
        )
    # Font styles preloading must be performed before any call to FPDF.get_string_width:
    txt = self.normalize_text(txt)
    styled_txt_frags = self._preload_font_styles(txt, markdown)
    return self._render_styled_text_line(
        TextLine(
            styled_txt_frags,
            text_width=0.0,
            number_of_spaces=0,
            justify=False,
            trailing_nl=False,
        ),
        w,
        h,
        border,
        new_x=new_x,
        new_y=new_y,
        align=align,
        fill=fill,
        link=link,
        center=center,
    )
def circle(self, x, y, r, style=None)

Outputs a circle. It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

Args

x : float
Abscissa of upper-left bounding box.
y : float
Ordinate of upper-left bounding box.
r : float
Radius of the circle.
style : str
Style of rendering. Possible values are:
  • D or None: draw border. This is the default value.
  • F: fill
  • DF or FD: draw and fill
Expand source code
@check_page
def circle(self, x, y, r, style=None):
    """
    Outputs a circle.
    It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

    Args:
        x (float): Abscissa of upper-left bounding box.
        y (float): Ordinate of upper-left bounding box.
        r (float): Radius of the circle.
        style (str): Style of rendering. Possible values are:

        * `D` or None: draw border. This is the default value.
        * `F`: fill
        * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
    """
    self.ellipse(x, y, r, r, style)
def code39(self, txt, x, y, w=1.5, h=5)

Barcode 3of9

Expand source code
@check_page
def code39(self, txt, x, y, w=1.5, h=5):
    """Barcode 3of9"""
    dim = {"w": w, "n": w / 3}
    if not txt.startswith("*") or not txt.endswith("*"):
        warnings.warn(
            "Code 39 input must start and end with a '*' character to be valid."
            " This method does not insert it automatically."
        )
    chars = {
        "0": "nnnwwnwnn",
        "1": "wnnwnnnnw",
        "2": "nnwwnnnnw",
        "3": "wnwwnnnnn",
        "4": "nnnwwnnnw",
        "5": "wnnwwnnnn",
        "6": "nnwwwnnnn",
        "7": "nnnwnnwnw",
        "8": "wnnwnnwnn",
        "9": "nnwwnnwnn",
        "A": "wnnnnwnnw",
        "B": "nnwnnwnnw",
        "C": "wnwnnwnnn",
        "D": "nnnnwwnnw",
        "E": "wnnnwwnnn",
        "F": "nnwnwwnnn",
        "G": "nnnnnwwnw",
        "H": "wnnnnwwnn",
        "I": "nnwnnwwnn",
        "J": "nnnnwwwnn",
        "K": "wnnnnnnww",
        "L": "nnwnnnnww",
        "M": "wnwnnnnwn",
        "N": "nnnnwnnww",
        "O": "wnnnwnnwn",
        "P": "nnwnwnnwn",
        "Q": "nnnnnnwww",
        "R": "wnnnnnwwn",
        "S": "nnwnnnwwn",
        "T": "nnnnwnwwn",
        "U": "wwnnnnnnw",
        "V": "nwwnnnnnw",
        "W": "wwwnnnnnn",
        "X": "nwnnwnnnw",
        "Y": "wwnnwnnnn",
        "Z": "nwwnwnnnn",
        "-": "nwnnnnwnw",
        ".": "wwnnnnwnn",
        " ": "nwwnnnwnn",
        "*": "nwnnwnwnn",
        "$": "nwnwnwnnn",
        "/": "nwnwnnnwn",
        "+": "nwnnnwnwn",
        "%": "nnnwnwnwn",
    }
    # The caller should do this, or we can't rotate the thing.
    # self.set_fill_color(0)
    for c in txt.upper():
        if c not in chars:
            raise RuntimeError(f'Invalid char "{c}" for Code39')
        for i, d in enumerate(chars[c]):
            if i % 2 == 0:
                self.rect(x, y, dim[d], h, "F")
            x += dim[d]
        x += dim["n"]
def dashed_line(self, x1, y1, x2, y2, dash_length=1, space_length=1)

Draw a dashed line between two points.

Args

x1 : float
Abscissa of first point
y1 : float
Ordinate of first point
x2 : float
Abscissa of second point
y2 : float
Ordinate of second point
dash_length : float
Length of the dash
space_length : float
Length of the space between 2 dashes

Deprecated since version: 2.4.6

Use FPDF.set_dash_pattern() and the normal drawing operations instead.

Expand source code
@check_page
def dashed_line(self, x1, y1, x2, y2, dash_length=1, space_length=1):
    """
    Draw a dashed line between two points.

    Args:
        x1 (float): Abscissa of first point
        y1 (float): Ordinate of first point
        x2 (float): Abscissa of second point
        y2 (float): Ordinate of second point
        dash_length (float): Length of the dash
        space_length (float): Length of the space between 2 dashes

    .. deprecated:: 2.4.6
        Use `FPDF.set_dash_pattern()` and the normal drawing operations instead.
    """
    warnings.warn(
        "dashed_line() is deprecated, and will be removed in a future release. "
        "Use set_dash_pattern() and the normal drawing operations instead.",
        DeprecationWarning,
        stacklevel=3,
    )
    self.set_dash_pattern(dash_length, space_length)
    self.line(x1, y1, x2, y2)
    self.set_dash_pattern()
def draw_path(self, path, debug_stream=None)

Add a pre-constructed path to the document.

Args

path : drawing.PaintedPath
the path to be drawn.
debug_stream : TextIO
print a pretty tree of all items to be rendered to the provided stream. To store the output in a string, use io.StringIO.
Expand source code
def draw_path(self, path, debug_stream=None):
    """
    Add a pre-constructed path to the document.

    Args:
        path (drawing.PaintedPath): the path to be drawn.
        debug_stream (TextIO): print a pretty tree of all items to be rendered
            to the provided stream. To store the output in a string, use
            `io.StringIO`.
    """
    with self.drawing_context(debug_stream=debug_stream) as ctxt:
        ctxt.add_item(path)
def drawing_context(self, debug_stream=None)

Create a context for drawing paths on the current page.

If this context manager is called again inside of an active context, it will raise an exception, as base drawing contexts cannot be nested.

Args

debug_stream : TextIO
print a pretty tree of all items to be rendered to the provided stream. To store the output in a string, use io.StringIO.
Expand source code
@contextmanager
@check_page
def drawing_context(self, debug_stream=None):
    """
    Create a context for drawing paths on the current page.

    If this context manager is called again inside of an active context, it will
    raise an exception, as base drawing contexts cannot be nested.

    Args:
        debug_stream (TextIO): print a pretty tree of all items to be rendered
            to the provided stream. To store the output in a string, use
            `io.StringIO`.
    """

    if self._current_draw_context is not None:
        raise FPDFException(
            "cannot create a drawing context while one is already open"
        )

    context = drawing.DrawingContext()
    self._current_draw_context = context
    try:
        yield context
    finally:
        self._current_draw_context = None

    starting_style = self._current_graphic_style()
    render_args = (
        self._drawing_graphics_state_registry,
        drawing.Point(self.x, self.y),
        self.k,
        self.h,
        starting_style,
    )

    if debug_stream:
        rendered = context.render_debug(*render_args, debug_stream)
    else:
        rendered = context.render(*render_args)

    self._out(rendered)
    # The drawing API makes use of features (notably transparency and blending modes) that were introduced in PDF 1.4:
    self._set_min_pdf_version("1.4")
def ellipse(self, x, y, w, h, style=None)

Outputs an ellipse. It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

Args

x : float
Abscissa of upper-left bounding box.
y : float
Ordinate of upper-left bounding box.
w : float
Width
h : float
Height
style : RenderStyle, str
Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:
  • D or empty string: draw border. This is the default value.
  • F: fill
  • DF or FD: draw and fill
Expand source code
@check_page
def ellipse(self, x, y, w, h, style=None):
    """
    Outputs an ellipse.
    It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

    Args:
        x (float): Abscissa of upper-left bounding box.
        y (float): Ordinate of upper-left bounding box.
        w (float): Width
        h (float): Height
        style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:

        * `D` or empty string: draw border. This is the default value.
        * `F`: fill
        * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
    """
    style = RenderStyle.coerce(style)
    self._draw_ellipse(x, y, w, h, style.operator)
def elliptic_clip(self, x, y, w, h)

Context manager that defines an elliptic crop zone, useful to render only part of an image.

Args

x : float
abscissa of the clipping region top left corner
y : float
ordinate of the clipping region top left corner
w : float
ellipse width
h : float
ellipse height
Expand source code
@check_page
@contextmanager
def elliptic_clip(self, x, y, w, h):
    """
    Context manager that defines an elliptic crop zone,
    useful to render only part of an image.

    Args:
        x (float): abscissa of the clipping region top left corner
        y (float): ordinate of the clipping region top left corner
        w (float): ellipse width
        h (float): ellipse height
    """
    self._out("q")
    self._draw_ellipse(x, y, w, h, "W n")
    yield
    self._out("Q")
def embed_file(self, file_path=None, bytes=None, basename=None, modification_date=None, **kwargs)

Embed a file into the PDF document

Args

file_path : str or Path
filesystem path to the existing file to embed
bytes : bytes
optional, as an alternative to file_path, bytes content of the file to embed
basename : str
optional, required if bytes is provided, file base name
creation_date : datetime
date and time when the file was created
modification_date : datetime
date and time when the file was last modified
desc : str
optional description of the file
compress : bool
enabled zlib compression of the file - False by default
checksum : bool
insert a MD5 checksum of the file content - False by default

Returns: a PDFEmbeddedFile instance, with a .basename string attribute representing the internal file name

Expand source code
def embed_file(
    self,
    file_path=None,
    bytes=None,
    basename=None,
    modification_date=None,
    **kwargs,
):
    """
    Embed a file into the PDF document

    Args:
        file_path (str or Path): filesystem path to the existing file to embed
        bytes (bytes): optional, as an alternative to file_path, bytes content of the file to embed
        basename (str): optional, required if bytes is provided, file base name
        creation_date (datetime): date and time when the file was created
        modification_date (datetime): date and time when the file was last modified
        desc (str): optional description of the file
        compress (bool): enabled zlib compression of the file - False by default
        checksum (bool): insert a MD5 checksum of the file content - False by default

    Returns: a PDFEmbeddedFile instance, with a .basename string attribute representing the internal file name
    """
    if file_path:
        if bytes:
            raise ValueError("'bytes' cannot be provided with 'file_path'")
        if basename:
            raise ValueError("'basename' cannot be provided with 'file_path'")
        file_path = Path(file_path)
        with file_path.open("rb") as input_file:
            bytes = input_file.read()
        basename = file_path.name
        stats = file_path.stat()
        if modification_date is None:
            modification_date = datetime.fromtimestamp(stats.st_mtime).astimezone()
    else:
        if not bytes:
            raise ValueError("'bytes' is required if 'file_path' is not provided")
        if not basename:
            raise ValueError(
                "'basename' is required if 'file_path' is not provided"
            )
    already_embedded_basenames = set(
        file.basename() for file in self.embedded_files
    )
    if basename in already_embedded_basenames:
        raise ValueError(f"{basename} has already been embedded in this file")
    embedded_file = PDFEmbeddedFile(
        basename=basename,
        contents=bytes,
        modification_date=modification_date,
        **kwargs,
    )
    self.embedded_files.append(embedded_file)
    self._set_min_pdf_version("1.4")
    return embedded_file
def file_attachment_annotation(self, file_path, x, y, w=1, h=1, name=None, flags=(<AnnotationFlag.PRINT: 4>,), **kwargs)

Puts a file attachment annotation on a rectangular area of the page.

Args

file_path : str or Path
filesystem path to the existing file to embed
x : float
horizontal position (from the left) to the left side of the link rectangle
y : float
vertical position (from the top) to the bottom side of the link rectangle
w : float
optional width of the link rectangle
h : float
optional height of the link rectangle
name : FileAttachmentAnnotationName, str
optional icon that shall be used in displaying the annotation
flags : Tuple[AnnotationFlag], Tuple[str]
optional list of flags defining annotation properties
bytes : bytes
optional, as an alternative to file_path, bytes content of the file to embed
basename : str
optional, required if bytes is provided, file base name
creation_date : datetime
date and time when the file was created
modification_date : datetime
date and time when the file was last modified
desc : str
optional description of the file
compress : bool
enabled zlib compression of the file - False by default
checksum : bool
insert a MD5 checksum of the file content - False by default
Expand source code
@check_page
def file_attachment_annotation(
    self, file_path, x, y, w=1, h=1, name=None, flags=DEFAULT_ANNOT_FLAGS, **kwargs
):
    """
    Puts a file attachment annotation on a rectangular area of the page.

    Args:
        file_path (str or Path): filesystem path to the existing file to embed
        x (float): horizontal position (from the left) to the left side of the link rectangle
        y (float): vertical position (from the top) to the bottom side of the link rectangle
        w (float): optional width of the link rectangle
        h (float): optional height of the link rectangle
        name (fpdf.enums.FileAttachmentAnnotationName, str): optional icon that shall be used in displaying the annotation
        flags (Tuple[fpdf.enums.AnnotationFlag], Tuple[str]): optional list of flags defining annotation properties
        bytes (bytes): optional, as an alternative to file_path, bytes content of the file to embed
        basename (str): optional, required if bytes is provided, file base name
        creation_date (datetime): date and time when the file was created
        modification_date (datetime): date and time when the file was last modified
        desc (str): optional description of the file
        compress (bool): enabled zlib compression of the file - False by default
        checksum (bool): insert a MD5 checksum of the file content - False by default
    """
    embedded_file = self.embed_file(file_path, **kwargs)
    embedded_file.set_globally_enclosed(False)
    annotation = AnnotationDict(
        "FileAttachment",
        x * self.k,
        self.h_pt - y * self.k,
        w * self.k,
        h * self.k,
        file_spec=embedded_file.file_spec(),
        name=FileAttachmentAnnotationName.coerce(name) if name else None,
        flags=tuple(AnnotationFlag.coerce(flag) for flag in flags),
    )
    self.pages[self.page].annots.append(annotation)
    return annotation
def file_id(self)

This method can be overridden in inherited classes in order to define a custom file identifier. Its output must have the format "". If this method returns a falsy value (None, empty string), no /ID will be inserted in the generated PDF document.

Expand source code
def file_id(self):
    """
    This method can be overridden in inherited classes
    in order to define a custom file identifier.
    Its output must have the format "<hex_string1><hex_string2>".
    If this method returns a falsy value (None, empty string),
    no /ID will be inserted in the generated PDF document.
    """
    return -1
def footer(self)

Footer to be implemented in your own inherited class.

This is automatically called by FPDF.add_page() and FPDF.close() and should not be called directly by the user application. The default implementation performs nothing: you have to override this method in a subclass to implement your own rendering logic.

Expand source code
def footer(self):
    """
    Footer to be implemented in your own inherited class.

    This is automatically called by `FPDF.add_page()` and `FPDF.close()`
    and should not be called directly by the user application.
    The default implementation performs nothing: you have to override this method
    in a subclass to implement your own rendering logic.
    """
def get_string_width(self, s, normalized=False, markdown=False)

Returns the length of a string in user unit. A font must be selected. The value is calculated with stretching and spacing.

Args

s : str
the string whose length is to be computed.
normalized : bool
whether normalization needs to be performed on the input string.
markdown : bool
indicates if basic markdown support is enabled
Expand source code
def get_string_width(self, s, normalized=False, markdown=False):
    """
    Returns the length of a string in user unit. A font must be selected.
    The value is calculated with stretching and spacing.

    Args:
        s (str): the string whose length is to be computed.
        normalized (bool): whether normalization needs to be performed on the input string.
        markdown (bool): indicates if basic markdown support is enabled
    """
    # normalized is parameter for internal use
    s = s if normalized else self.normalize_text(s)
    w = 0
    for frag in (
        self._markdown_parse(s)
        if markdown
        else (Fragment(s, self._get_current_graphics_state(), self.k),)
    ):
        w += frag.get_width()
    return w
def get_x(self)

Returns the abscissa of the current position.

Expand source code
def get_x(self):
    """Returns the abscissa of the current position."""
    return self.x
def get_y(self)

Returns the ordinate of the current position.

Expand source code
def get_y(self):
    """Returns the ordinate of the current position."""
    if self._in_unbreakable:
        raise FPDFException(
            "Using get_y() inside an unbreakable() code block is error-prone"
        )
    return self.y
def header(self)

Header to be implemented in your own inherited class

This is automatically called by FPDF.add_page() and should not be called directly by the user application. The default implementation performs nothing: you have to override this method in a subclass to implement your own rendering logic.

Expand source code
def header(self):
    """
    Header to be implemented in your own inherited class

    This is automatically called by `FPDF.add_page()`
    and should not be called directly by the user application.
    The default implementation performs nothing: you have to override this method
    in a subclass to implement your own rendering logic.
    """
def highlight(self, text, title='', type='Highlight', color=(1, 1, 0), modification_time=None)

Context manager that adds a single highlight annotation based on the text lines inserted inside its indented block.

Args

text : str
text of the annotation
title : str
the text label that shall be displayed in the title bar of the annotation’s pop-up window when open and active. This entry shall identify the user who added the annotation.
type : TextMarkupType, str
"Highlight", "Underline", "Squiggly" or "StrikeOut".
color : tuple
a tuple of numbers in the range 0.0 to 1.0, representing a colour used for the title bar of the annotation’s pop-up window. Defaults to yellow.
modification_time : datetime
date and time when the annotation was most recently modified
Expand source code
@contextmanager
def highlight(
    self, text, title="", type="Highlight", color=(1, 1, 0), modification_time=None
):
    """
    Context manager that adds a single highlight annotation based on the text lines inserted
    inside its indented block.

    Args:
        text (str): text of the annotation
        title (str): the text label that shall be displayed in the title bar of the annotation’s
            pop-up window when open and active. This entry shall identify the user who added the annotation.
        type (fpdf.enums.TextMarkupType, str): "Highlight", "Underline", "Squiggly" or "StrikeOut".
        color (tuple): a tuple of numbers in the range 0.0 to 1.0, representing a colour used for
            the title bar of the annotation’s pop-up window. Defaults to yellow.
        modification_time (datetime): date and time when the annotation was most recently modified
    """
    if self._record_text_quad_points:
        raise FPDFException("highlight() cannot be nested")
    self._record_text_quad_points = True
    yield
    for page, quad_points in self._text_quad_points.items():
        self.add_text_markup_annotation(
            type,
            text,
            quad_points=quad_points,
            title=title,
            color=color,
            modification_time=modification_time,
            page=page,
        )
    self._text_quad_points = defaultdict(list)
    self._record_text_quad_points = False
def image(self, name, x=None, y=None, w=0, h=0, type='', link='', title=None, alt_text=None, dims=None)

Put an image on the page.

The size of the image on the page can be specified in different ways: * explicit width and height (expressed in user units) * one explicit dimension, the other being calculated automatically in order to keep the original proportions * no explicit dimension, in which case the image is put at 72 dpi.

Remarks: * if an image is used several times, only one copy is embedded in the file. * when using an animated GIF, only the first frame is used.

Args

name
either a string representing a file path to an image, an URL to an image, an io.BytesIO, or a instance of PIL.Image.Image
x : float, Align
optional horizontal position where to put the image on the page. If not specified or equal to None, the current abscissa is used. Align.C can also be passed to center the image horizontally; and Align.R to place it along the right page margin
y : float
optional vertical position where to put the image on the page. If not specified or equal to None, the current ordinate is used. After the call, the current ordinate is moved to the bottom of the image
w : float
optional width of the image. If not specified or equal to zero, it is automatically calculated from the image size. Pass pdf.epw to scale horizontally to the full page width.
h : float
optional height of the image. If not specified or equal to zero, it is automatically calculated from the image size. Pass pdf.eph to scale horizontally to the full page height.
type : str
[DEPRECATED since 2.2.0] unused, will be removed in a later version.
link : str
optional link to add on the image, internal (identifier returned by FPDF.add_link()) or external URL.
title : str
optional. Currently, never seem rendered by PDF readers.
alt_text : str
optional alternative text describing the image, for accessibility purposes. Displayed by some PDF readers on hover.
dims : Tuple[float]
optional dimensions as a tuple (width, height) to resize the image before storing it in the PDF. Note that those are the intrinsic image dimensions, but the image will still be rendered on the page with the width (w) and height (h) provided as parameters. Note also that the .oversized_images attribute of FPDF provides an automated way to auto-adjust those intrinsic image dimensions.
Expand source code
@check_page
def image(
    self,
    name,
    x=None,
    y=None,
    w=0,
    h=0,
    type="",
    link="",
    title=None,
    alt_text=None,
    dims=None,
):
    """
    Put an image on the page.

    The size of the image on the page can be specified in different ways:
    * explicit width and height (expressed in user units)
    * one explicit dimension, the other being calculated automatically
      in order to keep the original proportions
    * no explicit dimension, in which case the image is put at 72 dpi.

    **Remarks**:
    * if an image is used several times, only one copy is embedded in the file.
    * when using an animated GIF, only the first frame is used.

    Args:
        name: either a string representing a file path to an image, an URL to an image,
            an io.BytesIO, or a instance of `PIL.Image.Image`
        x (float, fpdf.enums.Align): optional horizontal position where to put the image on the page.
            If not specified or equal to None, the current abscissa is used.
            `Align.C` can also be passed to center the image horizontally;
            and `Align.R` to place it along the right page margin
        y (float): optional vertical position where to put the image on the page.
            If not specified or equal to None, the current ordinate is used.
            After the call, the current ordinate is moved to the bottom of the image
        w (float): optional width of the image. If not specified or equal to zero,
            it is automatically calculated from the image size.
            Pass `pdf.epw` to scale horizontally to the full page width.
        h (float): optional height of the image. If not specified or equal to zero,
            it is automatically calculated from the image size.
            Pass `pdf.eph` to scale horizontally to the full page height.
        type (str): [**DEPRECATED since 2.2.0**] unused, will be removed in a later version.
        link (str): optional link to add on the image, internal
            (identifier returned by `FPDF.add_link`) or external URL.
        title (str): optional. Currently, never seem rendered by PDF readers.
        alt_text (str): optional alternative text describing the image,
            for accessibility purposes. Displayed by some PDF readers on hover.
        dims (Tuple[float]): optional dimensions as a tuple (width, height) to resize the image
            before storing it in the PDF. Note that those are the **intrinsic** image dimensions,
            but the image will still be rendered on the page with the width (`w`) and height (`h`)
            provided as parameters. Note also that the `.oversized_images` attribute of FPDF
            provides an automated way to auto-adjust those intrinsic image dimensions.
    """
    if type:
        warnings.warn(
            '"type" parameter is deprecated, unused and will soon be removed',
            DeprecationWarning,
            stacklevel=3,
        )
    if str(name).endswith(".svg"):
        # Insert it as a PDF path:
        img = load_image(str(name))
        return self._vector_image(img, x, y, w, h, link, title, alt_text)
    if isinstance(name, str):
        img = None
    elif isinstance(name, Image):
        bytes = name.tobytes()
        img_hash = hashlib.new("md5", usedforsecurity=False)  # nosec B324
        img_hash.update(bytes)
        name, img = img_hash.hexdigest(), name
    elif isinstance(name, io.BytesIO):
        bytes = name.getvalue().strip()
        if _is_svg(bytes):
            return self._vector_image(name, x, y, w, h, link, title, alt_text)
        img_hash = hashlib.new("md5", usedforsecurity=False)  # nosec B324
        img_hash.update(bytes)
        name, img = img_hash.hexdigest(), name
    else:
        name, img = str(name), name
    info = self.images.get(name)
    if info:
        info["usages"] += 1
    else:
        if not img:
            img = load_image(name)
        info = get_img_info(img, self.image_filter, dims)
        info["i"] = len(self.images) + 1
        info["usages"] = 1
        self.images[name] = info
    if "smask" in info:
        self._set_min_pdf_version("1.4")

    # Automatic width and height calculation if needed
    if w == 0 and h == 0:  # Put image at 72 dpi
        w = info["w"] / self.k
        h = info["h"] / self.k
    elif w == 0:
        w = h * info["w"] / info["h"]
    elif h == 0:
        h = w * info["h"] / info["w"]

    if self.oversized_images and info["usages"] == 1 and not dims:
        info = self._downscale_image(name, img, info, w, h)

    # Flowing mode
    if y is None:
        self._perform_page_break_if_need_be(h)
        y = self.y
        self.y += h
    if x is None:
        x = self.x
    elif not isinstance(x, Number):
        x = Align.coerce(x)
        if x == Align.C:
            x = (self.w - w) / 2
        elif x == Align.R:
            x = self.w - w - self.r_margin
        elif x == Align.L:
            x = self.l_margin
        else:
            raise ValueError(f"Unsupported 'x' value passed to .image(): {x}")

    stream_content = (
        f"q {w * self.k:.2f} 0 0 {h * self.k:.2f} {x * self.k:.2f} "
        f"{(self.h - y - h) * self.k:.2f} cm /I{info['i']} Do Q"
    )
    if title or alt_text:
        with self._marked_sequence(title=title, alt_text=alt_text):
            self._out(stream_content)
    else:
        self._out(stream_content)
    if link:
        self.link(x, y, w, h, link)

    return {**info, "rendered_width": w, "rendered_height": h}
def ink_annotation(self, coords, contents='', title='', color=(1, 1, 0), border_width=1)

Adds add an ink annotation on the page.

Args

coords : tuple
an iterable of coordinates (pairs of numbers) defining a path
contents : str
textual description
title : str
the text label that shall be displayed in the title bar of the annotation’s pop-up window when open and active. This entry shall identify the user who added the annotation.
color : tuple
a tuple of numbers in the range 0.0 to 1.0, representing a colour used for the title bar of the annotation’s pop-up window. Defaults to yellow.
border_width : int
thickness of the path stroke.
Expand source code
@check_page
def ink_annotation(
    self, coords, contents="", title="", color=(1, 1, 0), border_width=1
):
    """
    Adds add an ink annotation on the page.

    Args:
        coords (tuple): an iterable of coordinates (pairs of numbers) defining a path
        contents (str): textual description
        title (str): the text label that shall be displayed in the title bar of the annotation’s
            pop-up window when open and active. This entry shall identify the user who added the annotation.
        color (tuple): a tuple of numbers in the range 0.0 to 1.0, representing a colour used for
            the title bar of the annotation’s pop-up window. Defaults to yellow.
        border_width (int): thickness of the path stroke.
    """
    ink_list = sum(((x * self.k, (self.h - y) * self.k) for (x, y) in coords), ())
    x_min = min(ink_list[0::2])
    y_min = min(ink_list[1::2])
    x_max = max(ink_list[0::2])
    y_max = max(ink_list[1::2])
    annotation = AnnotationDict(
        "Ink",
        x=y_min,
        y=y_max,
        width=x_max - x_min,
        height=y_max - y_min,
        ink_list=ink_list,
        color=color,
        border_width=border_width,
        contents=contents,
        title=title,
    )
    self.pages[self.page].annots.append(annotation)
    return annotation
def insert_toc_placeholder(self, render_toc_function, pages=1)

Configure Table Of Contents rendering at the end of the document generation, and reserve some vertical space right now in order to insert it.

Args

render_toc_function : function
a function that will be invoked to render the ToC. This function will receive 2 parameters: pdf, an instance of FPDF, and outline, a list of OutlineSection.
pages : int
the number of pages that the Table of Contents will span, including the current one that will. As many page breaks as the value of this argument will occur immediately after calling this method.
Expand source code
@check_page
def insert_toc_placeholder(self, render_toc_function, pages=1):
    """
    Configure Table Of Contents rendering at the end of the document generation,
    and reserve some vertical space right now in order to insert it.

    Args:
        render_toc_function (function): a function that will be invoked to render the ToC.
            This function will receive 2 parameters: `pdf`, an instance of FPDF, and `outline`,
            a list of `OutlineSection`.
        pages (int): the number of pages that the Table of Contents will span,
            including the current one that will. As many page breaks as the value of this argument
            will occur immediately after calling this method.
    """
    if not callable(render_toc_function):
        raise TypeError(
            f"The first argument must be a callable, got: {type(render_toc_function)}"
        )
    if self._toc_placeholder:
        raise FPDFException(
            "A placeholder for the table of contents has already been defined"
            f" on page {self._toc_placeholder.start_page}"
        )
    self._toc_placeholder = ToCPlaceholder(
        render_toc_function, self.page, self.y, pages
    )
    for _ in range(pages):
        self.add_page()
def interleaved2of5(self, txt, x, y, w=1, h=10)

Barcode I2of5 (numeric), adds a 0 if odd length

Expand source code
@check_page
def interleaved2of5(self, txt, x, y, w=1, h=10):
    """Barcode I2of5 (numeric), adds a 0 if odd length"""
    narrow = w / 3
    wide = w

    # wide/narrow codes for the digits
    bar_char = {
        "0": "nnwwn",
        "1": "wnnnw",
        "2": "nwnnw",
        "3": "wwnnn",
        "4": "nnwnw",
        "5": "wnwnn",
        "6": "nwwnn",
        "7": "nnnww",
        "8": "wnnwn",
        "9": "nwnwn",
        "A": "nn",
        "Z": "wn",
    }
    # The caller should do this, or we can't rotate the thing.
    # self.set_fill_color(0)
    code = txt
    # add leading zero if code-length is odd
    if len(code) % 2 != 0:
        code = f"0{code}"

    # add start and stop codes
    code = f"AA{code.lower()}ZA"

    for i in range(0, len(code), 2):
        # choose next pair of digits
        char_bar = code[i]
        char_space = code[i + 1]
        # check whether it is a valid digit
        if char_bar not in bar_char:
            raise RuntimeError(f'Char "{char_bar}" invalid for I25:')
        if char_space not in bar_char:
            raise RuntimeError(f'Char "{char_space}" invalid for I25: ')

        # create a wide/narrow-seq (first digit=bars, second digit=spaces)
        seq = "".join(
            f"{cb}{cs}" for cb, cs in zip(bar_char[char_bar], bar_char[char_space])
        )

        for bar_index, char in enumerate(seq):
            # set line_width depending on value
            line_width = narrow if char == "n" else wide

            # draw every second value, the other is represented by space
            if bar_index % 2 == 0:
                self.rect(x, y, line_width, h, "F")

            x += line_width
def line(self, x1, y1, x2, y2)

Draw a line between two points.

Args

x1 : float
Abscissa of first point
y1 : float
Ordinate of first point
x2 : float
Abscissa of second point
y2 : float
Ordinate of second point
Expand source code
@check_page
def line(self, x1, y1, x2, y2):
    """
    Draw a line between two points.

    Args:
        x1 (float): Abscissa of first point
        y1 (float): Ordinate of first point
        x2 (float): Abscissa of second point
        y2 (float): Ordinate of second point
    """
    self._out(
        f"{x1 * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - y1) * self.k:.2f} m {x2 * self.k:.2f} "
        f"{(self.h - y2) * self.k:.2f} l S"
    )

Puts a link annotation on a rectangular area of the page. Text or image links are generally put via FPDF.cell(), FPDF.write() or FPDF.image(), but this method can be useful for instance to define a clickable area inside an image.

Args

x : float
horizontal position (from the left) to the left side of the link rectangle
y : float
vertical position (from the top) to the bottom side of the link rectangle
w : float
width of the link rectangle
h : float
height of the link rectangle
link
either an URL or an integer returned by FPDF.add_link(), defining an internal link to a page
alt_text : str
optional textual description of the link, for accessibility purposes
border_width : int
thickness of an optional black border surrounding the link. Not all PDF readers honor this: Acrobat renders it but not Sumatra.
Expand source code
@check_page
def link(self, x, y, w, h, link, alt_text=None, border_width=0):
    """
    Puts a link annotation on a rectangular area of the page.
    Text or image links are generally put via `FPDF.cell`,
    `FPDF.write` or `FPDF.image`,
    but this method can be useful for instance to define a clickable area inside an image.

    Args:
        x (float): horizontal position (from the left) to the left side of the link rectangle
        y (float): vertical position (from the top) to the bottom side of the link rectangle
        w (float): width of the link rectangle
        h (float): height of the link rectangle
        link: either an URL or an integer returned by `FPDF.add_link`, defining an internal link to a page
        alt_text (str): optional textual description of the link, for accessibility purposes
        border_width (int): thickness of an optional black border surrounding the link.
            Not all PDF readers honor this: Acrobat renders it but not Sumatra.
    """
    action, dest = None, None
    if link:
        if isinstance(link, str):
            action = URIAction(link)
        else:  # Dest type ending of annotation entry
            assert (
                link in self.links
            ), f"Link with an invalid index: {link} (doc #links={len(self.links)})"
            dest = self.links[link]
            if not dest.page_number:
                raise ValueError(
                    f"Cannot insert link {link} with no page number assigned"
                )
    link_annot = AnnotationDict(
        "Link",
        x=x * self.k,
        y=self.h_pt - y * self.k,
        width=w * self.k,
        height=h * self.k,
        action=action,
        dest=dest,
        border_width=border_width,
    )
    self.pages[self.page].annots.append(link_annot)
    if alt_text is not None:
        # Note: the spec indicates that a /StructParent could be added **inside* this /Annot,
        # but tests with Adobe Acrobat Reader reveal that the page /StructParents inserted below
        # is enough to link the marked content in the hierarchy tree with this annotation link.
        self._add_marked_content(struct_type="/Link", alt_text=alt_text)
    return link_annot
def ln(self, h=None)

Line Feed. The current abscissa goes back to the left margin and the ordinate increases by the amount passed as parameter.

Args

h : float
The height of the break. By default, the value equals the height of the last printed cell.
Expand source code
@check_page
def ln(self, h=None):
    """
    Line Feed.
    The current abscissa goes back to the left margin and the ordinate increases by
    the amount passed as parameter.

    Args:
        h (float): The height of the break.
            By default, the value equals the height of the last printed cell.
    """
    self.x = self.l_margin
    self.y += self._lasth if h is None else h
def local_context(self, font_family=None, font_style=None, font_size=None, line_width=None, draw_color=None, fill_color=None, text_color=None, dash_pattern=None, **kwargs)

Creates a local graphics state, which won't affect the surrounding code. This method must be used as a context manager using with:

with pdf.local_context():
    set_some_state()
    draw_some_stuff()

The affected settings are those controlled by GraphicsStateMixin and drawing.GraphicsStyle: allow_transparency auto_close blend_mode dash_pattern draw_color fill_color fill_opacity font_family font_size font_style font_stretching intersection_rule line_width paint_rule stroke_cap_style stroke_join_style stroke_miter_limit stroke_opacity text_color text_mode underline char_vpos

Args

**kwargs
key-values settings to set at the beggining of this context.
Expand source code
@check_page
@contextmanager
def local_context(
    self,
    font_family=None,
    font_style=None,
    font_size=None,
    line_width=None,
    draw_color=None,
    fill_color=None,
    text_color=None,
    dash_pattern=None,
    **kwargs,
):
    """
    Creates a local graphics state, which won't affect the surrounding code.
    This method must be used as a context manager using `with`:

        with pdf.local_context():
            set_some_state()
            draw_some_stuff()

    The affected settings are those controlled by GraphicsStateMixin and drawing.GraphicsStyle:
        allow_transparency
        auto_close
        blend_mode
        dash_pattern
        draw_color
        fill_color
        fill_opacity
        font_family
        font_size
        font_style
        font_stretching
        intersection_rule
        line_width
        paint_rule
        stroke_cap_style
        stroke_join_style
        stroke_miter_limit
        stroke_opacity
        text_color
        text_mode
        underline
        char_vpos

    Args:
        **kwargs: key-values settings to set at the beggining of this context.
    """
    if self._in_unbreakable:
        raise FPDFException(
            "cannot create a local context inside an unbreakable() code block"
        )
    self._push_local_stack()
    gs = None
    for key, value in kwargs.items():
        if key in (
            "stroke_color",
            "stroke_dash_phase",
            "stroke_dash_pattern",
            "stroke_width",
        ):
            raise ValueError(
                f"Unsupported setting: {key} - This can be controlled through dash_pattern / draw_color / line_width"
            )
        if key in drawing.GraphicsStyle.MERGE_PROPERTIES:
            if gs is None:
                gs = drawing.GraphicsStyle()
            setattr(gs, key, value)
            if key == "blend_mode":
                self._set_min_pdf_version("1.4")
        elif key in ("font_stretching", "text_mode", "underline", "char_vpos"):
            setattr(self, key, value)
        else:
            raise ValueError(f"Unsupported setting: {key}")
    if gs:
        gs_name = self._drawing_graphics_state_registry.register_style(gs)
        self._out(f"q /{gs_name} gs")
    else:
        self._out("q")
    # All the following calls to .set*() methods invoke .out() and write to the stream buffer:
    if font_family is not None or font_style is not None or font_size is not None:
        self.set_font(
            font_family or self.font_family,
            font_style or self.font_style,
            font_size or self.font_size_pt,
        )
    if line_width is not None:
        self.set_line_width(line_width)
    if draw_color is not None:
        if isinstance(draw_color, Sequence):
            self.set_draw_color(*draw_color)
        else:
            self.set_draw_color(draw_color)
    if fill_color is not None:
        if isinstance(fill_color, Sequence):
            self.set_fill_color(*fill_color)
        else:
            self.set_fill_color(fill_color)
    if text_color is not None:
        if isinstance(text_color, Sequence):
            self.set_text_color(*text_color)
        else:
            self.set_text_color(text_color)
    if dash_pattern is not None:
        self.set_dash_pattern(**dash_pattern)
    yield
    self._out("Q")
    self._pop_local_stack()
def multi_cell(self, w, h=None, txt='', border=0, align=Align.J, fill=False, split_only=False, link='', ln='DEPRECATED', max_line_height=None, markdown=False, print_sh=False, new_x=XPos.RIGHT, new_y=YPos.NEXT)

This method allows printing text with line breaks. They can be automatic (breaking at the most recent space or soft-hyphen character) as soon as the text reaches the right border of the cell, or explicit (via the \n character). As many cells as necessary are stacked, one below the other. Text can be aligned, centered or justified. The cell block can be framed and the background painted.

Args

w : float
cell width. If 0, they extend up to the right margin of the page.
h : float
cell height. Default value: None, meaning to use the current font size.
txt : str
string to print.
border
Indicates if borders must be drawn around the cell. The value can be either a number (0: no border ; 1: frame) or a string containing some or all of the following characters (in any order): L: left ; T: top ; R: right ; B: bottom. Default value: 0.
align : Align, str
Allows to center or align the text. Possible values are: J: justify (default value); L or empty string: left align; C: center; X: center around current x; R: right align
fill : bool
Indicates if the cell background must be painted (True) or transparent (False). Default value: False.
split_only : bool
if True, does not output anything, only perform word-wrapping and return the resulting multi-lines array of strings.
link : str
optional link to add on the cell, internal (identifier returned by add_link) or external URL.
new_x : XPos, str
New current position in x after the call. Default: RIGHT
new_y : YPos, str
New current position in y after the call. Default: NEXT
ln : int
DEPRECATED since 2.5.1: Use new_x and new_y instead.
max_line_height : float
optional maximum height of each sub-cell generated
markdown : bool
enable minimal markdown-like markup to render part of text as bold / italics / underlined. Default to False.
print_sh : bool
Treat a soft-hyphen (\u00ad) as a normal printable character, instead of a line breaking opportunity. Default value: False

Using new_x=XPos.RIGHT, new_y=XPos.TOP, maximum height=pdf.font_size is useful to build tables with multiline text in cells.

Returns: a boolean indicating if page break was triggered, or if split_only == True: txt splitted into lines in an array

Expand source code
@check_page
def multi_cell(
    self,
    w,
    h=None,
    txt="",
    border=0,
    align=Align.J,
    fill=False,
    split_only=False,
    link="",
    ln="DEPRECATED",
    max_line_height=None,
    markdown=False,
    print_sh=False,
    new_x=XPos.RIGHT,
    new_y=YPos.NEXT,
):
    """
    This method allows printing text with line breaks. They can be automatic
    (breaking at the most recent space or soft-hyphen character) as soon as the text
    reaches the right border of the cell, or explicit (via the `\\n` character).
    As many cells as necessary are stacked, one below the other.
    Text can be aligned, centered or justified. The cell block can be framed and
    the background painted.

    Args:
        w (float): cell width. If 0, they extend up to the right margin of the page.
        h (float): cell height. Default value: None, meaning to use the current font size.
        txt (str): string to print.
        border: Indicates if borders must be drawn around the cell.
            The value can be either a number (`0`: no border ; `1`: frame)
            or a string containing some or all of the following characters
            (in any order):
            `L`: left ; `T`: top ; `R`: right ; `B`: bottom. Default value: 0.
        align (fpdf.enums.Align, str): Allows to center or align the text.
            Possible values are:
            `J`: justify (default value); `L` or empty string: left align;
            `C`: center; `X`: center around current x; `R`: right align
        fill (bool): Indicates if the cell background must be painted (`True`)
            or transparent (`False`). Default value: False.
        split_only (bool): if `True`, does not output anything, only perform
            word-wrapping and return the resulting multi-lines array of strings.
        link (str): optional link to add on the cell, internal
            (identifier returned by `add_link`) or external URL.
        new_x (fpdf.enums.XPos, str): New current position in x after the call. Default: RIGHT
        new_y (fpdf.enums.YPos, str): New current position in y after the call. Default: NEXT
        ln (int): **DEPRECATED since 2.5.1**: Use `new_x` and `new_y` instead.
        max_line_height (float): optional maximum height of each sub-cell generated
        markdown (bool): enable minimal markdown-like markup to render part
            of text as bold / italics / underlined. Default to False.
        print_sh (bool): Treat a soft-hyphen (\\u00ad) as a normal printable
            character, instead of a line breaking opportunity. Default value: False

    Using `new_x=XPos.RIGHT, new_y=XPos.TOP, maximum height=pdf.font_size` is
    useful to build tables with multiline text in cells.

    Returns: a boolean indicating if page break was triggered,
        or if `split_only == True`: `txt` splitted into lines in an array
    """
    if isinstance(w, str) or isinstance(h, str):
        raise ValueError(
            "Parameter 'w' and 'h' must be numbers, not strings."
            " You can omit them by passing string content with txt="
        )
    new_x = XPos.coerce(new_x)
    new_y = YPos.coerce(new_y)
    if ln != "DEPRECATED":
        # For backwards compatibility, if "ln" is used we overwrite "new_[xy]".
        if ln == 0:
            new_x = XPos.RIGHT
            new_y = YPos.NEXT
        elif ln == 1:
            new_x = XPos.LMARGIN
            new_y = YPos.NEXT
        elif ln == 2:
            new_x = XPos.LEFT
            new_y = YPos.NEXT
        elif ln == 3:
            new_x = XPos.RIGHT
            new_y = YPos.TOP
        else:
            raise ValueError(
                f'Invalid value for parameter "ln" ({ln}),'
                " must be an int between 0 and 3."
            )
        warnings.warn(
            (
                'The parameter "ln" is deprecated.'
                f" Instead of ln={ln} use new_x=XPos.{new_x.name}, new_y=YPos.{new_y.name}."
            ),
            DeprecationWarning,
            stacklevel=3,
        )
    align = Align.coerce(align)

    page_break_triggered = False
    if split_only:
        self._out = lambda *args, **kwargs: None
        self.add_page = lambda *args, **kwargs: None
        self._perform_page_break_if_need_be = lambda *args, **kwargs: None

    if h is None:
        h = self.font_size
    # If width is 0, set width to available width between margins
    if w == 0:
        w = self.w - self.r_margin - self.x
    maximum_allowed_width = w - 2 * self.c_margin

    # Calculate text length
    txt = self.normalize_text(txt)
    normalized_string = txt.replace("\r", "")
    styled_text_fragments = self._preload_font_styles(normalized_string, markdown)

    prev_font_style, prev_underline = self.font_style, self.underline
    prev_x, prev_y = self.x, self.y

    if not border:
        border = ""
    elif border == 1:
        border = "LTRB"

    text_lines = []
    multi_line_break = MultiLineBreak(
        styled_text_fragments,
        justify=(align == Align.J),
        print_sh=print_sh,
    )
    text_line = multi_line_break.get_line_of_given_width(maximum_allowed_width)
    while (text_line) is not None:
        text_lines.append(text_line)
        text_line = multi_line_break.get_line_of_given_width(maximum_allowed_width)

    if not text_lines:  # ensure we display at least one cell - cf. issue #349
        text_lines = [
            TextLine(
                "",
                text_width=0,
                number_of_spaces=0,
                justify=False,
                trailing_nl=False,
            )
        ]
    if align == Align.X:
        prev_x = self.x
    should_render_bottom_blank_cell = False
    for text_line_index, text_line in enumerate(text_lines):
        is_last_line = text_line_index == len(text_lines) - 1
        should_render_bottom_blank_cell = False
        if max_line_height is not None and h > max_line_height:
            current_cell_height = max_line_height
            h -= current_cell_height
            if is_last_line:
                if h > 0 and len(text_lines) > 1:
                    should_render_bottom_blank_cell = True
                else:
                    h += current_cell_height
                    current_cell_height = h
        else:
            current_cell_height = h
        has_line_after = not is_last_line or should_render_bottom_blank_cell
        new_page = self._render_styled_text_line(
            text_line,
            w,
            h=current_cell_height,
            border="".join(
                (
                    "T" if "T" in border and text_line_index == 0 else "",
                    "L" if "L" in border else "",
                    "R" if "R" in border else "",
                    "B" if "B" in border and not has_line_after else "",
                )
            ),
            new_x=new_x if not has_line_after else XPos.LEFT,
            new_y=new_y if not has_line_after else YPos.NEXT,
            align=Align.L if (align == Align.J and is_last_line) else align,
            fill=fill,
            link=link,
        )
        page_break_triggered = page_break_triggered or new_page
        if not is_last_line and align == Align.X:
            # prevent cumulative shift to the left
            self.x = prev_x
    if should_render_bottom_blank_cell:
        new_page = self._render_styled_text_line(
            TextLine(
                "",
                text_width=0,
                number_of_spaces=0,
                justify=False,
                trailing_nl=False,
            ),
            w,
            h=h,
            border="".join(
                (
                    "L" if "L" in border else "",
                    "R" if "R" in border else "",
                    "B" if "B" in border else "",
                )
            ),
            new_x=new_x,
            new_y=new_y,
            fill=fill,
            link=link,
        )
        page_break_triggered = page_break_triggered or new_page
    if new_page and new_y == YPos.TOP:
        # When a page jump is performed and the requested y is TOP,
        # pretend we started at the top of the text block on the new page.
        # cf. test_multi_cell_table_with_automatic_page_break
        prev_y = self.y
    if text_line.trailing_nl and new_y in (YPos.LAST, YPos.NEXT):
        # The line renderer can't handle trailing newlines in the text.
        self.ln()

    if new_y == YPos.TOP:  # We may have jumped a few lines -> reset
        self.y = prev_y

    if split_only:
        # restore writing functions
        del self.add_page
        del self._out
        del self._perform_page_break_if_need_be
        self.set_xy(prev_x, prev_y)  # restore location
        result = []
        for text_line in text_lines:
            characters = []
            for frag in text_line.fragments:
                characters.extend(frag.characters)
            result.append("".join(characters))
        return result
    if markdown:
        if self.font_style != prev_font_style:
            self.font_style = prev_font_style
            self.current_font = self.fonts[self.font_family + self.font_style]
        self.underline = prev_underline

    return page_break_triggered
def new_path(self, x=0, y=0, paint_rule=PathPaintRule.AUTO, debug_stream=None)

Create a path for appending lines and curves to.

Args

x : float
Abscissa of the path starting point
y : float
Ordinate of the path starting point
paint_rule : PathPaintRule
Optional choice of how the path should be painted. The default (AUTO) automatically selects stroke/fill based on the path style settings.
debug_stream : TextIO
print a pretty tree of all items to be rendered to the provided stream. To store the output in a string, use io.StringIO.
Expand source code
@contextmanager
def new_path(self, x=0, y=0, paint_rule=PathPaintRule.AUTO, debug_stream=None):
    """
    Create a path for appending lines and curves to.

    Args:
        x (float): Abscissa of the path starting point
        y (float): Ordinate of the path starting point
        paint_rule (PathPaintRule): Optional choice of how the path should
            be painted. The default (AUTO) automatically selects stroke/fill based
            on the path style settings.
        debug_stream (TextIO): print a pretty tree of all items to be rendered
            to the provided stream. To store the output in a string, use
            `io.StringIO`.

    """
    with self.drawing_context(debug_stream=debug_stream) as ctxt:
        path = drawing.PaintedPath(x=x, y=y)
        path.style.paint_rule = paint_rule
        yield path
        ctxt.add_item(path)
def normalize_text(self, txt)

Check that text input is in the correct format/encoding

Expand source code
def normalize_text(self, txt):
    """Check that text input is in the correct format/encoding"""
    # - for TTF unicode fonts: unicode object (utf8 encoding)
    # - for built-in fonts: string instances (encoding: latin-1, cp1252)
    if not self.is_ttf_font and self.core_fonts_encoding:
        try:
            return txt.encode(self.core_fonts_encoding).decode("latin-1")
        except UnicodeEncodeError as error:
            raise FPDFUnicodeEncodingException(
                text_index=error.start,
                character=txt[error.start],
                font_name=self.font_family + self.font_style,
            ) from error
    return txt
def offset_rendering(self)

All rendering performed in this context is made on a dummy FPDF object. This allows to test the results of some operations on the global layout before performing them "for real".

Expand source code
@contextmanager
def offset_rendering(self):
    """
    All rendering performed in this context is made on a dummy FPDF object.
    This allows to test the results of some operations on the global layout
    before performing them "for real".
    """
    prev_page, prev_y = self.page, self.y
    recorder = FPDFRecorder(self, accept_page_break=False)
    recorder.page_break_triggered = False
    yield recorder
    y_scroll = recorder.y - prev_y + (recorder.page - prev_page) * self.eph
    if prev_y + y_scroll > self.page_break_trigger or recorder.page > prev_page:
        recorder.page_break_triggered = True
    recorder.rewind()
def output(self, name='', dest='', linearize=False, output_producer_class=fpdf.output.OutputProducer)

Output PDF to some destination. The method first calls close if necessary to terminate the document. After calling this method, content cannot be added to the document anymore.

By default the bytearray buffer is returned. If a name is given, the PDF is written to a new file.

Args

name : str
optional File object or file path where to save the PDF under
dest : str
[DEPRECATED since 2.3.0] unused, will be removed in a later version
output_producer_class : class
use a custom class for PDF file generation
Expand source code
def output(
    self, name="", dest="", linearize=False, output_producer_class=OutputProducer
):
    """
    Output PDF to some destination.
    The method first calls [close](close.md) if necessary to terminate the document.
    After calling this method, content cannot be added to the document anymore.

    By default the bytearray buffer is returned.
    If a `name` is given, the PDF is written to a new file.

    Args:
        name (str): optional File object or file path where to save the PDF under
        dest (str): [**DEPRECATED since 2.3.0**] unused, will be removed in a later version
        output_producer_class (class): use a custom class for PDF file generation
    """
    if dest:
        warnings.warn(
            '"dest" parameter is deprecated, unused and will soon be removed',
            DeprecationWarning,
            stacklevel=2,
        )
    # Finish document if necessary:
    if not self.buffer:
        if self.page == 0:
            self.add_page()
        # Generating final page footer:
        self.in_footer = True
        self.footer()
        self.in_footer = False
        # Generating .buffer based on .pages:
        if self._toc_placeholder:
            self._insert_table_of_contents()
        if self.str_alias_nb_pages:
            self._substitute_page_number()
        if linearize:
            output_producer_class = LinearizedOutputProducer
        output_producer = output_producer_class(self)
        self.buffer = output_producer.bufferize()
    if name:
        if isinstance(name, os.PathLike):
            name.write_bytes(self.buffer)
        elif isinstance(name, str):
            Path(name).write_bytes(self.buffer)
        else:
            name.write(self.buffer)
        return None
    return self.buffer
def page_no(self)

Get the current page number

Expand source code
def page_no(self):
    """Get the current page number"""
    return self.page
def polygon(self, point_list, fill=False, style=None)

Outputs a polygon defined by three or more points.

Args

point_list : list of tuples
List of coordinates defining the polygon to draw
fill : bool
[DEPRECATED since v2.5.4] Use style="F" or style="DF" instead
style : RenderStyle, str
Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:
  • D or None: draw border. This is the default value.
  • F: fill
  • DF or FD: draw and fill
Expand source code
@check_page
def polygon(self, point_list, fill=False, style=None):
    """
    Outputs a polygon defined by three or more points.

    Args:
        point_list (list of tuples): List of coordinates defining the polygon to draw
        fill (bool): [**DEPRECATED since v2.5.4**] Use `style="F"` or `style="DF"` instead
        style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:

        * `D` or None: draw border. This is the default value.
        * `F`: fill
        * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
    """
    self.polyline(point_list, fill=fill, polygon=True, style=style)
def polyline(self, point_list, fill=False, polygon=False, style=None)

Draws lines between two or more points.

Args

point_list : list of tuples
List of Abscissa and Ordinate of segments that should be drawn
fill : bool
[DEPRECATED since v2.5.4] Use style="F" or style="DF" instead
polygon : bool
If true, close path before stroking, to fill the inside of the polyline
style : RenderStyle, str
Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:
  • D or None: draw border. This is the default value.
  • F: fill
  • DF or FD: draw and fill
Expand source code
@check_page
def polyline(self, point_list, fill=False, polygon=False, style=None):
    """
    Draws lines between two or more points.

    Args:
        point_list (list of tuples): List of Abscissa and Ordinate of
                                    segments that should be drawn
        fill (bool): [**DEPRECATED since v2.5.4**] Use `style="F"` or `style="DF"` instead
        polygon (bool): If true, close path before stroking, to fill the inside of the polyline
        style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:

        * `D` or None: draw border. This is the default value.
        * `F`: fill
        * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
    """
    if fill:
        warnings.warn(
            '"fill" parameter is deprecated, use style="F" or style="DF" instead',
            DeprecationWarning,
            stacklevel=5 if polygon else 3,
        )
    if fill and style is None:
        style = RenderStyle.DF
    else:
        style = RenderStyle.coerce(style)
        if fill and style == RenderStyle.D:
            raise ValueError(
                f"Conflicting values provided: fill={fill} & style={style}"
            )
    operator = "m"
    for point in point_list:
        self._out(
            f"{point[0] * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - point[1]) * self.k:.2f} {operator}"
        )
        operator = "l"
    if polygon:
        self._out(" h")
    self._out(f" {style.operator}")
def rect(self, x, y, w, h, style=None, round_corners=False, corner_radius=0)

Outputs a rectangle. It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

Args

x : float
Abscissa of upper-left bounding box.
y : float
Ordinate of upper-left bounding box.
w : float
Width.
h : float
Height.
style : RenderStyle, str
Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:
  • D or empty string: draw border. This is the default value.
  • F: fill
  • DF or FD: draw and fill
round_corners : tuple of str, tuple of Corner, bool
Optional draw a rectangle with round corners.

Possible values are:

TOP_LEFT: a rectangle with round top left corner TOP_RIGHT: a rectangle with round top right corner BOTTOM_LEFT: a rectangle with round bottom left corner BOTTOM_RIGHT: a rectangle with round bottom right corner True: a rectangle with all round corners False: a rectangle with no round corners

corner_radius
Optional radius of the corners
Expand source code
@check_page
def rect(self, x, y, w, h, style=None, round_corners=False, corner_radius=0):
    """
    Outputs a rectangle.
    It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

    Args:
        x (float): Abscissa of upper-left bounding box.
        y (float): Ordinate of upper-left bounding box.
        w (float): Width.
        h (float): Height.

        style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:

        * `D` or empty string: draw border. This is the default value.
        * `F`: fill
        * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill

        round_corners (tuple of str, tuple of fpdf.enums.Corner, bool): Optional draw a rectangle with round corners.
        Possible values are:

        *`TOP_LEFT`: a rectangle with round top left corner
        *`TOP_RIGHT`: a rectangle with round top right corner
        *`BOTTOM_LEFT`: a rectangle with round bottom left corner
        *`BOTTOM_RIGHT`: a rectangle with round bottom right corner
        *`True`: a rectangle with all round corners
        *`False`: a rectangle with no round corners

        corner_radius: Optional radius of the corners
    """

    style = RenderStyle.coerce(style)
    if round_corners is not False:
        self._draw_rounded_rect(x, y, w, h, style, round_corners, corner_radius)
    else:
        self._out(
            f"{x * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - y) * self.k:.2f} {w * self.k:.2f} "
            f"{-h * self.k:.2f} re {style.operator}"
        )
def rect_clip(self, x, y, w, h)

Context manager that defines a rectangular crop zone, useful to render only part of an image.

Args

x : float
abscissa of the clipping region top left corner
y : float
ordinate of the clipping region top left corner
w : float
width of the clipping region
h : float
height of the clipping region
Expand source code
@check_page
@contextmanager
def rect_clip(self, x, y, w, h):
    """
    Context manager that defines a rectangular crop zone,
    useful to render only part of an image.

    Args:
        x (float): abscissa of the clipping region top left corner
        y (float): ordinate of the clipping region top left corner
        w (float): width of the clipping region
        h (float): height of the clipping region
    """
    self._out(
        (
            f"q {x * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - y - h) * self.k:.2f} {w * self.k:.2f} "
            f"{h * self.k:.2f} re W n"
        )
    )
    yield
    self._out("Q")
def regular_polygon(self, x, y, numSides, polyWidth, rotateDegrees=0, style=None)

Outputs a regular polygon with n sides It can be rotated Style can also be applied (fill, border…)

Args

x : float
Abscissa of upper-left bounding box.
y : float
Ordinate of upper-left bounding box.
numSides : int
Number of sides for polygon.
polyWidth : float
Width of the polygon.
rotateDegrees : float
Optional degree amount to rotate polygon.
style : RenderStyle, str
Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:
  • D or None: draw border. This is the default value.
  • F: fill
  • DF or FD: draw and fill
Expand source code
@check_page
def regular_polygon(self, x, y, numSides, polyWidth, rotateDegrees=0, style=None):
    """
    Outputs a regular polygon with n sides
    It can be rotated
    Style can also be applied (fill, border...)

    Args:
        x (float): Abscissa of upper-left bounding box.
        y (float): Ordinate of upper-left bounding box.
        numSides (int): Number of sides for polygon.
        polyWidth (float): Width of the polygon.
        rotateDegrees (float): Optional degree amount to rotate polygon.
        style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:

        * `D` or None: draw border. This is the default value.
        * `F`: fill
        * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
    """
    radius = polyWidth / 2
    centerX = x + radius
    centerY = y - radius
    # center point is (centerX, centerY)
    points = []
    for i in range(1, numSides + 1):
        point = centerX + radius * math.cos(
            math.radians((360 / numSides) * i) + math.radians(rotateDegrees)
        ), centerY + radius * math.sin(
            math.radians((360 / numSides) * i) + math.radians(rotateDegrees)
        )
        points.append(point)
    # creates list of touples containing cordinate points of vertices

    self.polygon(points, style=style)
    # passes points through polygon function
def rotate(self, angle, x=None, y=None)

Deprecated since version: 2.1.0

Use FPDF.rotation() instead.

Expand source code
@check_page
def rotate(self, angle, x=None, y=None):
    """
    .. deprecated:: 2.1.0
        Use `FPDF.rotation()` instead.
    """
    warnings.warn(
        "rotate() can produces malformed PDFs and is deprecated. "
        "Use the rotation() context manager instead.",
        DeprecationWarning,
        stacklevel=3,
    )
    if x is None:
        x = self.x
    if y is None:
        y = self.y

    if self._angle != 0:
        self._out("Q")
    self._angle = angle
    if angle != 0:
        angle *= math.pi / 180
        c = math.cos(angle)
        s = math.sin(angle)
        cx = x * self.k
        cy = (self.h - y) * self.k
        s = (
            f"q {c:.5F} {s:.5F} {-s:.5F} {c:.5F} {cx:.2F} {cy:.2F} cm "
            f"1 0 0 1 {-cx:.2F} {-cy:.2F} cm"
        )
        self._out(s)
def rotation(self, angle, x=None, y=None)

This method allows to perform a rotation around a given center. It must be used as a context-manager using with:

with rotation(angle=90, x=x, y=y):
    pdf.something()

The rotation affects all elements which are printed inside the indented context (with the exception of clickable areas).

Args

angle : float
angle in degrees
x : float
abscissa of the center of the rotation
y : float
ordinate of the center of the rotation

Notes

Only the rendering is altered. The FPDF.get_x() and FPDF.get_y() methods are not affected, nor the automatic page break mechanism. The rotation also establishes a local graphics state, so that any graphics state settings changed within will not affect the operations invoked after it has finished.

Expand source code
@check_page
@contextmanager
def rotation(self, angle, x=None, y=None):
    """
    This method allows to perform a rotation around a given center.
    It must be used as a context-manager using `with`:

        with rotation(angle=90, x=x, y=y):
            pdf.something()

    The rotation affects all elements which are printed inside the indented
    context (with the exception of clickable areas).

    Args:
        angle (float): angle in degrees
        x (float): abscissa of the center of the rotation
        y (float): ordinate of the center of the rotation

    Notes
    -----

    Only the rendering is altered. The `FPDF.get_x()` and `FPDF.get_y()` methods are
    not affected, nor the automatic page break mechanism.
    The rotation also establishes a local graphics state, so that any
    graphics state settings changed within will not affect the operations
    invoked after it has finished.
    """
    if x is None:
        x = self.x
    if y is None:
        y = self.y
    angle *= math.pi / 180
    c, s = math.cos(angle), math.sin(angle)
    cx, cy = x * self.k, (self.h - y) * self.k
    with self.local_context():
        self._out(
            f"{c:.5F} {s:.5F} {-s:.5F} {c:.5F} {cx:.2F} {cy:.2F} cm "
            f"1 0 0 1 {-cx:.2F} {-cy:.2F} cm"
        )
        yield
def round_clip(self, x, y, r)

Context manager that defines a circular crop zone, useful to render only part of an image.

Args

x : float
abscissa of the clipping region top left corner
y : float
ordinate of the clipping region top left corner
r : float
radius of the clipping region
Expand source code
@check_page
@contextmanager
def round_clip(self, x, y, r):
    """
    Context manager that defines a circular crop zone,
    useful to render only part of an image.

    Args:
        x (float): abscissa of the clipping region top left corner
        y (float): ordinate of the clipping region top left corner
        r (float): radius of the clipping region
    """
    with self.elliptic_clip(x, y, r, r):
        yield
def set_author(self, author)

Defines the author of the document.

Args

author(str): the name of the author

Expand source code
def set_author(self, author):
    """
    Defines the author of the document.

    Args:
        author(str): the name of the author
    """
    self.author = author
def set_auto_page_break(self, auto, margin=0)

Set auto page break mode and triggering bottom margin. By default, the mode is on and the bottom margin is 2 cm.

Args

auto : bool
enable or disable this mode
margin : float
optional bottom margin (distance from the bottom of the page) in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
Expand source code
def set_auto_page_break(self, auto, margin=0):
    """
    Set auto page break mode and triggering bottom margin.
    By default, the mode is on and the bottom margin is 2 cm.

    Args:
        auto (bool): enable or disable this mode
        margin (float): optional bottom margin (distance from the bottom of the page)
            in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
    """
    self.auto_page_break = auto
    self.b_margin = margin
    self.page_break_trigger = self.h - self.b_margin
def set_char_spacing(self, spacing)

Sets horizontal character spacing. A positive value increases the space between characters, a negative value reduces it (which may result in glyph overlap). By default, no spacing is set (which is equivalent to a value of 0).

Args

spacing : float
horizontal spacing in document units
Expand source code
def set_char_spacing(self, spacing):
    """
    Sets horizontal character spacing.
    A positive value increases the space between characters, a negative value
    reduces it (which may result in glyph overlap).
    By default, no spacing is set (which is equivalent to a value of 0).

    Args:
        spacing (float): horizontal spacing in document units
    """
    if self.char_spacing == spacing:
        return
    self.char_spacing = spacing
    if self.page > 0:
        self._out(f"BT {spacing:.2f} Tc ET")
def set_compression(self, compress)

Activates or deactivates page compression.

When activated, the internal representation of each page is compressed using the zlib/deflate method (FlateDecode), which leads to a compression ratio of about 2 for the resulting document.

Page compression is enabled by default.

Args

compress : bool
indicates if compression should be enabled
Expand source code
def set_compression(self, compress):
    """
    Activates or deactivates page compression.

    When activated, the internal representation of each page is compressed
    using the zlib/deflate method (FlateDecode), which leads to a compression ratio
    of about 2 for the resulting document.

    Page compression is enabled by default.

    Args:
        compress (bool): indicates if compression should be enabled
    """
    self.compress = compress
def set_creation_date(self, date=None)

Sets Creation of Date time, or current time if None given.

Expand source code
def set_creation_date(self, date=None):
    """Sets Creation of Date time, or current time if None given."""
    if self._sign_key:
        raise FPDFException(
            ".set_creation_date() must always be called before .sign*() methods"
        )
    if not isinstance(date, datetime):
        raise TypeError(f"date should be a datetime but is a {type(date)}")
    if not date.tzinfo:
        date = date.astimezone()
    self.creation_date = date
def set_creator(self, creator)

Defines the creator of the document. This is typically the name of the application that generates the PDF.

Args

creator : str
name of the PDF creator
Expand source code
def set_creator(self, creator):
    """
    Defines the creator of the document.
    This is typically the name of the application that generates the PDF.

    Args:
        creator (str): name of the PDF creator
    """
    self.creator = creator
def set_dash_pattern(self, dash=0, gap=0, phase=0)

Set the current dash pattern for lines and curves.

Args

dash (float >= 0): The length of the dashes in current units.

gap (float >= 0): The length of the gaps between dashes in current units. If omitted, the dash length will be used.

phase (float >= 0): Where in the sequence to start drawing. Omitting 'dash' (= 0) resets the pattern to a solid line.

Expand source code
def set_dash_pattern(self, dash=0, gap=0, phase=0):
    """
    Set the current dash pattern for lines and curves.

    Args:
        dash (float >= 0):
            The length of the dashes in current units.

        gap (float >= 0):
            The length of the gaps between dashes in current units.
            If omitted, the dash length will be used.

        phase (float >= 0):
            Where in the sequence to start drawing.

    Omitting 'dash' (= 0) resets the pattern to a solid line.
    """
    if not (isinstance(dash, (int, float)) and dash >= 0):
        raise ValueError("Dash length must be zero or a positive number.")
    if not (isinstance(gap, (int, float)) and gap >= 0):
        raise ValueError("gap length must be zero or a positive number.")
    if not (isinstance(phase, (int, float)) and phase >= 0):
        raise ValueError("Phase must be zero or a positive number.")

    pattern = dict(dash=dash, gap=gap, phase=phase)

    if pattern != self.dash_pattern:
        self.dash_pattern = pattern

        if dash:
            if gap:
                dstr = f"[{dash * self.k:.3f} {gap * self.k:.3f}] {phase *self.k:.3f} d"
            else:
                dstr = f"[{dash * self.k:.3f}] {phase *self.k:.3f} d"
        else:
            dstr = "[] 0 d"

        self._out(dstr)
def set_display_mode(self, zoom, layout='continuous')

Defines the way the document is to be displayed by the viewer.

It allows to set the zoom level: pages can be displayed entirely on screen, occupy the full width of the window, use the real size, be scaled by a specific zooming factor or use the viewer default (configured in its Preferences menu).

The page layout can also be specified: single page at a time, continuous display, two columns or viewer default.

Args

zoom
either "fullpage", "fullwidth", "real", "default", or a number indicating the zooming factor to use, interpreted as a percentage. The zoom level set by default is "default".
layout : PageLayout, str
allowed layout aliases are "single", "continuous", "two" or "default", meaning to use the viewer default mode. The layout set by default is "continuous".
Expand source code
def set_display_mode(self, zoom, layout="continuous"):
    """
    Defines the way the document is to be displayed by the viewer.

    It allows to set the zoom level: pages can be displayed entirely on screen,
    occupy the full width of the window, use the real size,
    be scaled by a specific zooming factor or use the viewer default (configured in its Preferences menu).

    The page layout can also be specified: single page at a time, continuous display, two columns or viewer default.

    Args:
        zoom: either "fullpage", "fullwidth", "real", "default",
            or a number indicating the zooming factor to use, interpreted as a percentage.
            The zoom level set by default is "default".
        layout (fpdf.enums.PageLayout, str): allowed layout aliases are "single", "continuous", "two" or "default",
            meaning to use the viewer default mode.
            The layout set by default is "continuous".
    """
    if zoom in ZOOM_CONFIGS or not isinstance(zoom, str):
        self.zoom_mode = zoom
    elif zoom != "default":
        raise FPDFException(f"Incorrect zoom display mode: {zoom}")
    self.page_layout = LAYOUT_ALIASES.get(layout, layout)
def set_doc_option(self, opt, value)

Defines a document option.

Args

opt : str
name of the option to set

value (str) option value

Deprecated since version: 2.4.0

Simply set the FPDF.core_fonts_encoding property as a replacement.

Expand source code
def set_doc_option(self, opt, value):
    """
    Defines a document option.

    Args:
        opt (str): name of the option to set
        value (str) option value

    .. deprecated:: 2.4.0
        Simply set the `FPDF.core_fonts_encoding` property as a replacement.
    """
    warnings.warn(
        "set_doc_option() is deprecated. "
        "Simply set the `.core_fonts_encoding` property as a replacement.",
        DeprecationWarning,
        stacklevel=2,
    )
    if opt != "core_fonts_encoding":
        raise FPDFException(f'Unknown document option "{opt}"')
    self.core_fonts_encoding = value
def set_draw_color(self, r, g=-1, b=-1)

Defines the color used for all stroking operations (lines, rectangles and cell borders). It can be expressed in RGB components or grey scale. The method can be called before the first page is created and the value is retained from page to page.

Args

r : int
if g and b are given, this indicates the red component. Else, this indicates the grey level. The value must be between 0 and 255.
g : int
green component (between 0 and 255)
b : int
blue component (between 0 and 255)
Expand source code
def set_draw_color(self, r, g=-1, b=-1):
    """
    Defines the color used for all stroking operations (lines, rectangles and cell borders).
    It can be expressed in RGB components or grey scale.
    The method can be called before the first page is created and the value is retained from page to page.

    Args:
        r (int): if `g` and `b` are given, this indicates the red component.
            Else, this indicates the grey level. The value must be between 0 and 255.
        g (int): green component (between 0 and 255)
        b (int): blue component (between 0 and 255)
    """
    if (r == 0 and g == 0 and b == 0) or g == -1:
        self.draw_color = drawing.DeviceGray(r / 255)
    else:
        self.draw_color = drawing.DeviceRGB(r / 255, g / 255, b / 255)
    if self.page > 0:
        self._out(self.draw_color.serialize().upper())
def set_encryption(self, owner_password, user_password=None, encryption_method=EncryptionMethod.RC4, permissions=AccessPermission.PRINT_HIGH_RES|ASSEMBLE|COPY_FOR_ACCESSIBILITY|FILL_FORMS|ANNOTATION|COPY|MODIFY|PRINT_LOW_RES, encrypt_metadata=False)

" Activate encryption of the document content.

Args

owner_password : str
mandatory. The owner password allows to perform any change on the document, including removing all encryption and access permissions.
user_password : str
optional. If a user password is set, the content of the document will be encrypted and a password prompt displayed when a user opens the document. The document will only be displayed after either the user or owner password is entered.
encryption_method : EncryptionMethod, str
algorithm to be used to encrypt the document. Defaults to RC4.
permissions : AccessPermission
specify access permissions granted when the document is opened with user access. Defaults to ALL.
encrypt_metadata : bool
whether to also encrypt document metadata (author, creation date, etc.). Defaults to False.
Expand source code
def set_encryption(
    self,
    owner_password,
    user_password=None,
    encryption_method=EncryptionMethod.RC4,
    permissions=AccessPermission.all(),
    encrypt_metadata=False,
):
    """ "
    Activate encryption of the document content.

    Args:
        owner_password (str): mandatory. The owner password allows to perform any change on the document,
            including removing all encryption and access permissions.
        user_password (str): optional. If a user password is set, the content of the document will be encrypted
            and a password prompt displayed when a user opens the document.
            The document will only be displayed after either the user or owner password is entered.
        encryption_method (fpdf.enums.EncryptionMethod, str): algorithm to be used to encrypt the document.
            Defaults to RC4.
        permissions (fpdf.enums.AccessPermission): specify access permissions granted
            when the document is opened with user access. Defaults to ALL.
        encrypt_metadata (bool): whether to also encrypt document metadata (author, creation date, etc.).
            Defaults to False.
    """
    self._security_handler = StandardSecurityHandler(
        self,
        owner_password=owner_password,
        user_password=user_password,
        permission=permissions,
        encryption_method=encryption_method,
        encrypt_metadata=encrypt_metadata,
    )
def set_fill_color(self, r, g=-1, b=-1)

Defines the color used for all filling operations (filled rectangles and cell backgrounds). It can be expressed in RGB components or grey scale. The method can be called before the first page is created and the value is retained from page to page.

Args

r : int
if g and b are given, this indicates the red component. Else, this indicates the grey level. The value must be between 0 and 255.
g : int
green component (between 0 and 255)
b : int
blue component (between 0 and 255)
Expand source code
def set_fill_color(self, r, g=-1, b=-1):
    """
    Defines the color used for all filling operations (filled rectangles and cell backgrounds).
    It can be expressed in RGB components or grey scale.
    The method can be called before the first page is created and the value is retained from page to page.

    Args:
        r (int): if `g` and `b` are given, this indicates the red component.
            Else, this indicates the grey level. The value must be between 0 and 255.
        g (int): green component (between 0 and 255)
        b (int): blue component (between 0 and 255)
    """
    if (r == 0 and g == 0 and b == 0) or g == -1:
        self.fill_color = drawing.DeviceGray(r / 255)
    else:
        self.fill_color = drawing.DeviceRGB(r / 255, g / 255, b / 255)
    if self.page > 0:
        self._out(self.fill_color.serialize().lower())
def set_font(self, family=None, style='', size=0)

Sets the font used to print character strings. It is mandatory to call this method at least once before printing text.

Default encoding is not specified, but all text writing methods accept only unicode for external fonts and one byte encoding for standard.

Standard fonts use Latin-1 encoding by default, but Windows encoding cp1252 (Western Europe) can be used with self.core_fonts_encoding = encoding.

The font specified is retained from page to page. The method can be called before the first page is created.

Args

family : str
name of a font added with FPDF.add_font(), or name of one of the 14 standard "PostScript" fonts: Courier (fixed-width), Helvetica (sans serif), Times (serif), Symbol (symbolic) or ZapfDingbats (symbolic) If an empty string is provided, the current family is retained.
style : str
empty string (by default) or a combination of one or several letters among B (bold), I (italic) and U (underline). Bold and italic styles do not apply to Symbol and ZapfDingbats fonts.
size : float
in points. The default value is the current size.
Expand source code
def set_font(self, family=None, style="", size=0):
    """
    Sets the font used to print character strings.
    It is mandatory to call this method at least once before printing text.

    Default encoding is not specified, but all text writing methods accept only
    unicode for external fonts and one byte encoding for standard.

    Standard fonts use `Latin-1` encoding by default, but Windows
    encoding `cp1252` (Western Europe) can be used with
    `self.core_fonts_encoding = encoding`.

    The font specified is retained from page to page.
    The method can be called before the first page is created.

    Args:
        family (str): name of a font added with `FPDF.add_font`,
            or name of one of the 14 standard "PostScript" fonts:
            Courier (fixed-width), Helvetica (sans serif), Times (serif),
            Symbol (symbolic) or ZapfDingbats (symbolic)
            If an empty string is provided, the current family is retained.
        style (str): empty string (by default) or a combination
            of one or several letters among B (bold), I (italic) and U (underline).
            Bold and italic styles do not apply to Symbol and ZapfDingbats fonts.
        size (float): in points. The default value is the current size.
    """
    if not family:
        family = self.font_family

    family = family.lower()
    style = "".join(sorted(style.upper()))
    if any(letter not in "BIU" for letter in style):
        raise ValueError(
            f"Unknown style provided (only B/I/U letters are allowed): {style}"
        )
    if "U" in style:
        self.underline = True
        style = style.replace("U", "")
    else:
        self.underline = False

    if family in self.font_aliases and family + style not in self.fonts:
        warnings.warn(
            f"Substituting font {family} by core font "
            f"{self.font_aliases[family]}"
        )
        family = self.font_aliases[family]
    elif family in ("symbol", "zapfdingbats") and style:
        warnings.warn(
            f"Built-in font {family} only has a single 'style' and can't be bold "
            f"or italic"
        )
        style = ""

    if size == 0:
        size = self.font_size_pt

    # Test if font is already selected
    if (
        self.font_family == family
        and self.font_style == style
        and isclose(self.font_size_pt, size)
    ):
        return

    # Test if used for the first time
    fontkey = family + style
    if fontkey not in self.fonts:
        if fontkey not in self.core_fonts:
            raise FPDFException(
                f"Undefined font: {fontkey} - "
                f"Use built-in fonts or FPDF.add_font() beforehand"
            )
        # If it's one of the core fonts, add it to self.fonts
        self.fonts[fontkey] = {
            "i": len(self.fonts) + 1,
            "type": "core",
            "name": self.core_fonts[fontkey],
            "up": -100,
            "ut": 50,
            "cw": fpdf_charwidths[fontkey],
            "fontkey": fontkey,
        }

    # Select it
    self.font_family = family
    self.font_style = style
    self.font_size_pt = size
    self.current_font = self.fonts[fontkey]
    if self.page > 0:
        self._out(f"BT /F{self.current_font['i']} {self.font_size_pt:.2f} Tf ET")
def set_font_size(self, size)

Configure the font size in points

Args

size : float
font size in points
Expand source code
def set_font_size(self, size):
    """
    Configure the font size in points

    Args:
        size (float): font size in points
    """
    if isclose(self.font_size_pt, size):
        return
    self.font_size_pt = size
    if self.page > 0:
        if not self.current_font:
            raise FPDFException(
                "Cannot set font size: a font must be selected first"
            )
        self._out(f"BT /F{self.current_font['i']} {self.font_size_pt:.2f} Tf ET")
def set_image_filter(self, image_filter)

Args

image_filter : str
name of a the image filter to use when embedding images in the document, or "AUTO", meaning to use the best image filter given the images provided. Allowed values: FlateDecode (lossless zlib/deflate compression), DCTDecode (lossy compression with JPEG) and JPXDecode (lossy compression with JPEG2000).
Expand source code
def set_image_filter(self, image_filter):
    """
    Args:
        image_filter (str): name of a the image filter to use
            when embedding images in the document, or "AUTO",
            meaning to use the best image filter given the images provided.
            Allowed values: `FlateDecode` (lossless zlib/deflate compression),
            `DCTDecode` (lossy compression with JPEG)
            and `JPXDecode` (lossy compression with JPEG2000).
    """
    if image_filter not in SUPPORTED_IMAGE_FILTERS:
        raise ValueError(
            f"'{image_filter}' is not a supported image filter"
            f" - Allowed values: {''.join(SUPPORTED_IMAGE_FILTERS)}"
        )
    self.image_filter = image_filter
    if image_filter == "JPXDecode":
        self._set_min_pdf_version("1.5")
def set_keywords(self, keywords)

Associate keywords with the document

Args

keywords : str
a space-separated list of words
Expand source code
def set_keywords(self, keywords):
    """
    Associate keywords with the document

    Args:
        keywords (str): a space-separated list of words
    """
    self.keywords = keywords
def set_lang(self, lang)

A language identifier specifying the natural language for all text in the document except where overridden by language specifications for structure elements or marked content. A language identifier can either be the empty text string, to indicate that the language is unknown, or a Language-Tag as defined in RFC 3066, "Tags for the Identification of Languages".

Args

lang : str
the document main language
Expand source code
def set_lang(self, lang):
    """
    A language identifier specifying the natural language for all text in the document
    except where overridden by language specifications for structure elements or marked content.
    A language identifier can either be the empty text string, to indicate that the language is unknown,
    or a Language-Tag as defined in RFC 3066, "Tags for the Identification of Languages".

    Args:
        lang (str): the document main language
    """
    self.lang = lang
    if lang:
        self._set_min_pdf_version("1.4")
def set_left_margin(self, margin)

Sets the document left margin. Also sets the current FPDF.x on the page to this minimum horizontal position.

Args

margin : float
margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
Expand source code
def set_left_margin(self, margin):
    """
    Sets the document left margin.
    Also sets the current FPDF.x on the page to this minimum horizontal position.

    Args:
        margin (float): margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
    """
    if self.x < margin or self.x == self.l_margin:
        self.x = margin
    self.l_margin = margin
def set_line_width(self, width)

Defines the line width of all stroking operations (lines, rectangles and cell borders). By default, the value equals 0.2 mm. The method can be called before the first page is created and the value is retained from page to page.

Args

width : float
the width in user unit
Expand source code
def set_line_width(self, width):
    """
    Defines the line width of all stroking operations (lines, rectangles and cell borders).
    By default, the value equals 0.2 mm.
    The method can be called before the first page is created and the value is retained from page to page.

    Args:
        width (float): the width in user unit
    """
    self.line_width = width
    if self.page > 0:
        self._out(f"{width * self.k:.2f} w")

Defines the page and position a link points to.

Args

link : int
a link identifier returned by FPDF.add_link().
y : float
optional ordinate of target position. The default value is 0 (top of page).
x : float
optional abscissa of target position. The default value is 0 (top of page).
page : int
optional number of target page. -1 indicates the current page, which is the default value.
zoom : float
optional new zoom level after following the link. Currently ignored by Sumatra PDF Reader, but observed by Adobe Acrobat reader.
Expand source code
def set_link(self, link, y=0, x=0, page=-1, zoom="null"):
    """
    Defines the page and position a link points to.

    Args:
        link (int): a link identifier returned by `FPDF.add_link()`.
        y (float): optional ordinate of target position.
            The default value is 0 (top of page).
        x (float): optional abscissa of target position.
            The default value is 0 (top of page).
        page (int): optional number of target page.
            -1 indicates the current page, which is the default value.
        zoom (float): optional new zoom level after following the link.
            Currently ignored by Sumatra PDF Reader, but observed by Adobe Acrobat reader.
    """
    self.links[link] = DestinationXYZ(
        self.page if page == -1 else page,
        top=self.h_pt - y * self.k,
        left=x * self.k,
        zoom=zoom,
    )
def set_margin(self, margin)

Sets the document right, left, top & bottom margins to the same value.

Args

margin : float
margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
Expand source code
def set_margin(self, margin):
    """
    Sets the document right, left, top & bottom margins to the same value.

    Args:
        margin (float): margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
    """
    self.set_margins(margin, margin)
    self.set_auto_page_break(self.auto_page_break, margin)
def set_margins(self, left, top, right=-1)

Sets the document left, top & optionaly right margins to the same value. By default, they equal 1 cm. Also sets the current FPDF.y on the page to this minimum vertical position.

Args

left : float
left margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
top : float
top margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
right : float
optional right margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
Expand source code
def set_margins(self, left, top, right=-1):
    """
    Sets the document left, top & optionaly right margins to the same value.
    By default, they equal 1 cm.
    Also sets the current FPDF.y on the page to this minimum vertical position.

    Args:
        left (float): left margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
        top (float): top margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
        right (float): optional right margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
    """
    self.set_left_margin(left)
    if self.y < top or self.y == self.t_margin:
        self.y = top
    self.t_margin = top
    if right == -1:
        right = left
    self.r_margin = right
def set_page_background(self, background)

Sets a background color or image to be drawn every time FPDF.add_page() is called, or removes a previously set background. The method can be called before the first page is created and the value is retained from page to page.

Args

background
either a string representing a file path or URL to an image, an io.BytesIO containg an image as bytes, an instance of PIL.Image.Image, drawing.DeviceRGB or a RGB tuple representing a color to fill the background with or None to remove the background
Expand source code
def set_page_background(self, background):
    """
    Sets a background color or image to be drawn every time `FPDF.add_page()` is called, or removes a previously set background.
    The method can be called before the first page is created and the value is retained from page to page.

    Args:
        background: either a string representing a file path or URL to an image,
            an io.BytesIO containg an image as bytes, an instance of `PIL.Image.Image`, drawing.DeviceRGB
            or a RGB tuple representing a color to fill the background with or `None` to remove the background
    """

    if isinstance(
        background, (str, io.BytesIO, Image, drawing.DeviceRGB, tuple, type(None))
    ):
        if isinstance(background, drawing.DeviceRGB):
            self.page_background = tuple(255 * v for v in background.colors)
        else:
            self.page_background = background
    else:
        raise TypeError(
            f"""background must be of type str, io.BytesIO, PIL.Image.Image, drawing.DeviceRGB, tuple or None
    got: {type(background)}"""
        )
def set_producer(self, producer)

Producer of document

Expand source code
def set_producer(self, producer):
    """Producer of document"""
    self.producer = producer
def set_right_margin(self, margin)

Sets the document right margin.

Args

margin : float
margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
Expand source code
def set_right_margin(self, margin):
    """
    Sets the document right margin.

    Args:
        margin (float): margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
    """
    self.r_margin = margin
def set_section_title_styles(self, level0, level1=None, level2=None, level3=None, level4=None, level5=None, level6=None)

Defines a style for section titles. After calling this method, calls to FPDF.start_section() will render section names visually.

Args

level0 : TitleStyle
style for the top level section titles
level1 : TitleStyle
optional style for the level 1 section titles
level2 : TitleStyle
optional style for the level 2 section titles
level3 : TitleStyle
optional style for the level 3 section titles
level4 : TitleStyle
optional style for the level 4 section titles
level5 : TitleStyle
optional style for the level 5 section titles
level6 : TitleStyle
optional style for the level 6 section titles
Expand source code
def set_section_title_styles(
    self,
    level0,
    level1=None,
    level2=None,
    level3=None,
    level4=None,
    level5=None,
    level6=None,
):
    """
    Defines a style for section titles.
    After calling this method, calls to `FPDF.start_section` will render section names visually.

    Args:
        level0 (TitleStyle): style for the top level section titles
        level1 (TitleStyle): optional style for the level 1 section titles
        level2 (TitleStyle): optional style for the level 2 section titles
        level3 (TitleStyle): optional style for the level 3 section titles
        level4 (TitleStyle): optional style for the level 4 section titles
        level5 (TitleStyle): optional style for the level 5 section titles
        level6 (TitleStyle): optional style for the level 6 section titles
    """
    for level in (level0, level1, level2, level3, level4, level5, level6):
        if level and not isinstance(level, TitleStyle):
            raise TypeError(
                f"Arguments must all be TitleStyle instances, got: {type(level)}"
            )
    self.section_title_styles = {
        0: level0,
        1: level1,
        2: level2,
        3: level3,
        4: level4,
        5: level5,
        6: level6,
    }
def set_stretching(self, stretching)

Sets horizontal font stretching. By default, no stretching is set (which is equivalent to a value of 100).

Args

stretching : float
horizontal stretching (scaling) in percents.
Expand source code
def set_stretching(self, stretching):
    """
    Sets horizontal font stretching.
    By default, no stretching is set (which is equivalent to a value of 100).

    Args:
        stretching (float): horizontal stretching (scaling) in percents.
    """
    if self.font_stretching == stretching:
        return
    self.font_stretching = stretching
    if self.page > 0:
        self._out(f"BT {stretching:.2f} Tz ET")
def set_subject(self, subject)

Defines the subject of the document.

Args

subject : str
the document main subject
Expand source code
def set_subject(self, subject):
    """
    Defines the subject of the document.

    Args:
        subject (str): the document main subject
    """
    self.subject = subject
def set_text_color(self, r, g=-1, b=-1)

Defines the color used for text. It can be expressed in RGB components or grey scale. The method can be called before the first page is created and the value is retained from page to page.

Args

r : int
if g and b are given, this indicates the red component. Else, this indicates the grey level. The value must be between 0 and 255.
g : int
green component (between 0 and 255)
b : int
blue component (between 0 and 255)
Expand source code
def set_text_color(self, r, g=-1, b=-1):
    """
    Defines the color used for text.
    It can be expressed in RGB components or grey scale.
    The method can be called before the first page is created and the value is retained from page to page.

    Args:
        r (int): if `g` and `b` are given, this indicates the red component.
            Else, this indicates the grey level. The value must be between 0 and 255.
        g (int): green component (between 0 and 255)
        b (int): blue component (between 0 and 255)
    """
    if (r == 0 and g == 0 and b == 0) or g == -1:
        self.text_color = drawing.DeviceGray(r / 255)
    else:
        self.text_color = drawing.DeviceRGB(r / 255, g / 255, b / 255)
def set_title(self, title)

Defines the title of the document.

Args

title : str
the title
Expand source code
def set_title(self, title):
    """
    Defines the title of the document.

    Args:
        title (str): the title
    """
    self.title = title
def set_top_margin(self, margin)

Sets the document top margin.

Args

margin : float
margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
Expand source code
def set_top_margin(self, margin):
    """
    Sets the document top margin.

    Args:
        margin (float): margin in the unit specified to FPDF constructor
    """
    self.t_margin = margin
def set_x(self, x)

Defines the abscissa of the current position. If the value provided is negative, it is relative to the right of the page.

Args

x : float
the new current abscissa
Expand source code
def set_x(self, x):
    """
    Defines the abscissa of the current position.
    If the value provided is negative, it is relative to the right of the page.

    Args:
        x (float): the new current abscissa
    """
    self.x = x if x >= 0 else self.w + x
def set_xmp_metadata(self, xmp_metadata)
Expand source code
def set_xmp_metadata(self, xmp_metadata):
    if "<?xpacket" in xmp_metadata[:50]:
        raise ValueError(
            "fpdf2 already performs XMP metadata wrapping in a <?xpacket> tag"
        )
    self.xmp_metadata = xmp_metadata
    if xmp_metadata:
        self._set_min_pdf_version("1.4")
def set_xy(self, x, y)

Defines the abscissa and ordinate of the current position. If the values provided are negative, they are relative respectively to the right and bottom of the page.

Args

x : float
the new current abscissa
y : float
the new current ordinate
Expand source code
def set_xy(self, x, y):
    """
    Defines the abscissa and ordinate of the current position.
    If the values provided are negative, they are relative respectively to the right and bottom of the page.

    Args:
        x (float): the new current abscissa
        y (float): the new current ordinate
    """
    self.set_y(y)
    self.set_x(x)
def set_y(self, y)

Moves the current abscissa back to the left margin and sets the ordinate. If the value provided is negative, it is relative to the bottom of the page.

Args

y : float
the new current ordinate
Expand source code
def set_y(self, y):
    """
    Moves the current abscissa back to the left margin and sets the ordinate.
    If the value provided is negative, it is relative to the bottom of the page.

    Args:
        y (float): the new current ordinate
    """
    self.x = self.l_margin
    self.y = y if y >= 0 else self.h + y
def sign(self, key, cert, extra_certs=(), hashalgo='sha256', contact_info=None, location=None, signing_time=None, reason=None, flags=(<AnnotationFlag.PRINT: 4>, <AnnotationFlag.LOCKED: 128>))

Args

key
certificate private key
cert : cryptography.x509.Certificate
certificate
extra_certs : list[cryptography.x509.Certificate]
list of additional PKCS12 certificates
hashalgo : str
hashing algorithm used, passed to hashlib.new
contact_info : str
optional information provided by the signer to enable a recipient to contact the signer to verify the signature
location : str
optional CPU host name or physical location of the signing
signing_time : datetime
optional time of signing
reason : str
optional signing reason
flags : Tuple[AnnotationFlag], Tuple[str]
optional list of flags defining annotation properties
Expand source code
@check_page
def sign(
    self,
    key,
    cert,
    extra_certs=(),
    hashalgo="sha256",
    contact_info=None,
    location=None,
    signing_time=None,
    reason=None,
    flags=(AnnotationFlag.PRINT, AnnotationFlag.LOCKED),
):
    """
    Args:
        key: certificate private key
        cert (cryptography.x509.Certificate): certificate
        extra_certs (list[cryptography.x509.Certificate]): list of additional PKCS12 certificates
        hashalgo (str): hashing algorithm used, passed to `hashlib.new`
        contact_info (str): optional information provided by the signer to enable
            a recipient to contact the signer to verify the signature
        location (str): optional CPU host name or physical location of the signing
        signing_time (datetime): optional time of signing
        reason (str): optional signing reason
        flags (Tuple[fpdf.enums.AnnotationFlag], Tuple[str]): optional list of flags defining annotation properties
    """
    if not signer:
        raise EnvironmentError(
            "endesive.signer not available - PDF cannot be signed - Try: pip install endesive"
        )
    if self._sign_key:
        raise FPDFException(".sign* methods should be called only once")

    self._sign_key = key
    self._sign_cert = cert
    self._sign_extra_certs = extra_certs
    self._sign_hashalgo = hashalgo
    self._sign_time = signing_time or self.creation_date

    annotation = PDFAnnotation(
        "Widget",
        field_type="Sig",
        x=0,
        y=0,
        width=0,
        height=0,
        flags=flags,
        title="signature",
        value=Signature(
            contact_info=contact_info,
            location=location,
            m=format_date(self._sign_time),
            reason=reason,
        ),
    )
    self.pages[self.page].annots.append(annotation)
def sign_pkcs12(self, pkcs_filepath, password=None, hashalgo='sha256', contact_info=None, location=None, signing_time=None, reason=None, flags=(<AnnotationFlag.PRINT: 4>, <AnnotationFlag.LOCKED: 128>))

Args

pkcs_filepath : str
file path to a .pfx or .p12 PKCS12, in the binary format described by RFC 7292
password : bytes-like
the password to use to decrypt the data. None if the PKCS12 is not encrypted.
hashalgo : str
hashing algorithm used, passed to hashlib.new
contact_info : str
optional information provided by the signer to enable a recipient to contact the signer to verify the signature
location : str
optional CPU host name or physical location of the signing
signing_time : datetime
optional time of signing
reason : str
optional signing reason
flags : Tuple[AnnotationFlag], Tuple[str]
optional list of flags defining annotation properties
Expand source code
def sign_pkcs12(
    self,
    pkcs_filepath,
    password=None,
    hashalgo="sha256",
    contact_info=None,
    location=None,
    signing_time=None,
    reason=None,
    flags=(AnnotationFlag.PRINT, AnnotationFlag.LOCKED),
):
    """
    Args:
        pkcs_filepath (str): file path to a .pfx or .p12 PKCS12,
            in the binary format described by RFC 7292
        password (bytes-like): the password to use to decrypt the data.
            `None` if the PKCS12 is not encrypted.
        hashalgo (str): hashing algorithm used, passed to `hashlib.new`
        contact_info (str): optional information provided by the signer to enable
            a recipient to contact the signer to verify the signature
        location (str): optional CPU host name or physical location of the signing
        signing_time (datetime): optional time of signing
        reason (str): optional signing reason
        flags (Tuple[fpdf.enums.AnnotationFlag], Tuple[str]): optional list of flags defining annotation properties
    """
    if not signer:
        raise EnvironmentError(
            "endesive.signer not available - PDF cannot be signed - Try: pip install endesive"
        )
    with open(pkcs_filepath, "rb") as pkcs_file:
        key, cert, extra_certs = pkcs12.load_key_and_certificates(
            pkcs_file.read(), password
        )
    self.sign(
        key=key,
        cert=cert,
        extra_certs=extra_certs,
        hashalgo=hashalgo,
        contact_info=contact_info,
        location=location,
        signing_time=signing_time,
        reason=reason,
        flags=flags,
    )
def skew(self, ax=0, ay=0, x=None, y=None)

This method allows to perform a skew transformation originating from a given center. It must be used as a context-manager using with:

with skew(ax=15, ay=15, x=x, y=y):
    pdf.something()

The skew transformation affects all elements which are printed inside the indented context (with the exception of clickable areas).

Args

ax : float
angle of skew in the horizontal direction in degrees
ay : float
angle of skew in the vertical direction in degrees
x : float
abscissa of the center of the skew transformation
y : float
ordinate of the center of the skew transformation
Expand source code
@check_page
@contextmanager
def skew(self, ax=0, ay=0, x=None, y=None):
    """
    This method allows to perform a skew transformation originating from a given center.
    It must be used as a context-manager using `with`:

        with skew(ax=15, ay=15, x=x, y=y):
            pdf.something()

    The skew transformation affects all elements which are printed inside the indented
    context (with the exception of clickable areas).

    Args:
        ax (float): angle of skew in the horizontal direction in degrees
        ay (float): angle of skew in the vertical direction in degrees
        x (float): abscissa of the center of the skew transformation
        y (float): ordinate of the center of the skew transformation
    """
    lim_val = 2**32
    if x is None:
        x = self.x
    if y is None:
        y = self.y
    ax = max(min(math.tan(ax * (math.pi / 180)), lim_val), -lim_val)
    ay = max(min(math.tan(ay * (math.pi / 180)), lim_val), -lim_val)
    cx, cy = x * self.k, (self.h - y) * self.k
    with self.local_context():
        self._out(
            f"1 {ay:.5f} {ax:.5f} 1 {cx:.2f} {cy:.2f} cm "
            f"1 0 0 1 -{cx:.2f} -{cy:.2f} cm"
        )
        yield
def solid_arc(self, x, y, a, start_angle, end_angle, b=None, inclination=0, clockwise=False, style=None)

Outputs a solid arc. A solid arc combines an arc and a triangle to form a pie slice It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

Args

x : float
Abscissa of upper-left bounding box.
y : float
Ordinate of upper-left bounding box.
a : float
Semi-major axis.
b : float
Semi-minor axis, if None, equals to a (default: None).
start_angle : float
Start angle of the arc (in degrees).
end_angle : float
End angle of the arc (in degrees).
inclination : float
Inclination of the arc in respect of the x-axis (default: 0).
clockwise : bool
Way of drawing the arc (True: clockwise, False: counterclockwise) (default: False).
style : str
Style of rendering. Possible values are:
  • D or None: draw border. This is the default value.
  • F: fill
  • DF or FD: draw and fill
Expand source code
def solid_arc(
    self,
    x,
    y,
    a,
    start_angle,
    end_angle,
    b=None,
    inclination=0,
    clockwise=False,
    style=None,
):
    """
    Outputs a solid arc. A solid arc combines an arc and a triangle to form a pie slice
    It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

    Args:
        x (float): Abscissa of upper-left bounding box.
        y (float): Ordinate of upper-left bounding box.
        a (float): Semi-major axis.
        b (float): Semi-minor axis, if None, equals to a (default: None).
        start_angle (float): Start angle of the arc (in degrees).
        end_angle (float): End angle of the arc (in degrees).
        inclination (float): Inclination of the arc in respect of the x-axis (default: 0).
        clockwise (bool): Way of drawing the arc (True: clockwise, False: counterclockwise) (default: False).
        style (str): Style of rendering. Possible values are:

        * `D` or None: draw border. This is the default value.
        * `F`: fill
        * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill
    """
    self.arc(
        x,
        y,
        a,
        start_angle,
        end_angle,
        b,
        inclination,
        clockwise,
        True,
        True,
        style,
    )
def star(self, x, y, r_in, r_out, corners, rotate_degrees=0, style=None)

Outputs a regular star with n corners. It can be rotated. It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

Args

x : float
Abscissa of star's centre.
y : float
Ordinate of star's centre.
r_in : float
radius of internal circle.
r_out : float
radius of external circle.
corners : int
number of star's corners.
rotate_degrees : float
Optional degree amount to rotate star clockwise.
style : RenderStyle, str
Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:
  • D: draw border. This is the default value.
  • F: fill.
  • DF or FD: draw and fill.
Expand source code
@check_page
def star(self, x, y, r_in, r_out, corners, rotate_degrees=0, style=None):
    """
    Outputs a regular star with n corners.
    It can be rotated.
    It can be drawn (border only), filled (with no border) or both.

    Args:
        x (float): Abscissa of star's centre.
        y (float): Ordinate of star's centre.
        r_in (float): radius of internal circle.
        r_out (float): radius of external circle.
        corners (int): number of star's corners.
        rotate_degrees (float): Optional degree amount to rotate star clockwise.

        style (fpdf.enums.RenderStyle, str): Optional style of rendering. Possible values are:
        * `D`: draw border. This is the default value.
        * `F`: fill.
        * `DF` or `FD`: draw and fill.
    """
    th = math.radians(rotate_degrees)
    point_list = []
    for i in range(0, (corners * 2) + 1):
        corner_x = x + (r_out if i % 2 == 0 else r_in) * math.sin(th)
        corner_y = y + (r_out if i % 2 == 0 else r_in) * math.cos(th)
        point_list.append((corner_x, corner_y))

        th += math.radians(180 / corners)

    self.polyline(point_list, polygon=True, style=style)
def start_section(self, name, level=0, strict=True)

Start a section in the document outline. If section_title_styles have been configured, render the section name visually as a title.

Args

name : str
section name
level : int
section level in the document outline. 0 means top-level.
Expand source code
@check_page
def start_section(self, name, level=0, strict=True):
    """
    Start a section in the document outline.
    If section_title_styles have been configured,
    render the section name visually as a title.

    Args:
        name (str): section name
        level (int): section level in the document outline. 0 means top-level.
    """
    if level < 0:
        raise ValueError('"level" mut be equal or greater than zero')
    if strict and self._outline and level > self._outline[-1].level + 1:
        raise ValueError(
            f"Incoherent hierarchy: cannot start a level {level} section after a level {self._outline[-1].level} one"
        )
    dest = DestinationXYZ(self.page, top=self.h_pt - self.y * self.k)
    outline_struct_elem = None
    if self.section_title_styles:
        # We first check if adding this multi-cell will trigger a page break:
        with self.offset_rendering() as pdf:
            # pylint: disable=protected-access
            with pdf._apply_style(pdf.section_title_styles[level]):
                pdf.multi_cell(
                    w=pdf.epw,
                    h=pdf.font_size,
                    txt=name,
                    new_x=XPos.LMARGIN,
                    new_y=YPos.NEXT,
                )
        if pdf.page_break_triggered:
            # If so, we trigger a page break manually beforehand:
            self.add_page()
        with self._marked_sequence(title=name) as struct_elem:
            outline_struct_elem = struct_elem
            with self._apply_style(self.section_title_styles[level]):
                self.multi_cell(
                    w=self.epw,
                    h=self.font_size,
                    txt=name,
                    new_x=XPos.LMARGIN,
                    new_y=YPos.NEXT,
                )
    self._outline.append(
        OutlineSection(name, level, self.page, dest, outline_struct_elem)
    )
def text(self, x, y, txt='')

Prints a character string. The origin is on the left of the first character, on the baseline. This method allows placing a string precisely on the page, but it is usually easier to use the FPDF.cell(), FPDF.multi_cell() or FPDF.write()` methods.

Args

x : float
abscissa of the origin
y : float
ordinate of the origin
txt : str
string to print
Expand source code
@check_page
def text(self, x, y, txt=""):
    """
    Prints a character string. The origin is on the left of the first character,
    on the baseline. This method allows placing a string precisely on the page,
    but it is usually easier to use the `FPDF.cell()`, `FPDF.multi_cell() or `FPDF.write()` methods.

    Args:
        x (float): abscissa of the origin
        y (float): ordinate of the origin
        txt (str): string to print
    """
    if not self.font_family:
        raise FPDFException("No font set, you need to call set_font() beforehand")
    txt = self.normalize_text(txt)
    if self.is_ttf_font:
        txt_mapped = ""
        for char in txt:
            uni = ord(char)
            # Instead of adding the actual character to the stream its code is
            # mapped to a position in the font's subset
            txt_mapped += chr(self.current_font["subset"].pick(uni))
        txt2 = escape_parens(txt_mapped.encode("utf-16-be").decode("latin-1"))
    else:
        txt2 = escape_parens(txt)
    sl = [f"BT {x * self.k:.2f} {(self.h - y) * self.k:.2f} Td"]
    if self.text_mode != TextMode.FILL:
        sl.append(f" {self.text_mode} Tr {self.line_width:.2f} w")
    sl.append(f"({txt2}) Tj ET")
    if (self.underline and txt != "") or self._record_text_quad_points:
        w = self.get_string_width(txt, normalized=True, markdown=False)
        if self.underline and txt != "":
            sl.append(self._do_underline(x, y, w))
        if self._record_text_quad_points:
            h = self.font_size
            y -= 0.8 * h  # same coefficient as in _render_styled_text_line()
            self._add_quad_points(x, y, w, h)
    attr_l = []
    if self.fill_color != self.text_color:
        attr_l.append(f"{self.text_color.serialize().lower()}")
    if attr_l:
        sl = ["q"] + attr_l + sl + ["Q"]
    self._out(" ".join(sl))
def text_annotation(self, x, y, text, w=1, h=1, name=None, flags=(<AnnotationFlag.PRINT: 4>,))

Puts a text annotation on a rectangular area of the page.

Args

x : float
horizontal position (from the left) to the left side of the link rectangle
y : float
vertical position (from the top) to the bottom side of the link rectangle
text : str
text to display
w : float
optional width of the link rectangle
h : float
optional height of the link rectangle
name : AnnotationName, str
optional icon that shall be used in displaying the annotation
flags : Tuple[AnnotationFlag], Tuple[str]
optional list of flags defining annotation properties
Expand source code
@check_page
def text_annotation(
    self, x, y, text, w=1, h=1, name=None, flags=DEFAULT_ANNOT_FLAGS
):
    """
    Puts a text annotation on a rectangular area of the page.

    Args:
        x (float): horizontal position (from the left) to the left side of the link rectangle
        y (float): vertical position (from the top) to the bottom side of the link rectangle
        text (str): text to display
        w (float): optional width of the link rectangle
        h (float): optional height of the link rectangle
        name (fpdf.enums.AnnotationName, str): optional icon that shall be used in displaying the annotation
        flags (Tuple[fpdf.enums.AnnotationFlag], Tuple[str]): optional list of flags defining annotation properties
    """
    annotation = AnnotationDict(
        "Text",
        x * self.k,
        self.h_pt - y * self.k,
        w * self.k,
        h * self.k,
        contents=text,
        name=AnnotationName.coerce(name) if name else None,
        flags=tuple(AnnotationFlag.coerce(flag) for flag in flags),
    )
    self.pages[self.page].annots.append(annotation)
    return annotation
def unbreakable(self)

Ensures that all rendering performed in this context appear on a single page by performing page break beforehand if need be.

Notes

Using this method means to duplicate the FPDF bytearray buffer: when generating large PDFs, doubling memory usage may be troublesome.

Expand source code
@contextmanager
def unbreakable(self):
    """
    Ensures that all rendering performed in this context appear on a single page
    by performing page break beforehand if need be.

    Notes
    -----

    Using this method means to duplicate the FPDF `bytearray` buffer:
    when generating large PDFs, doubling memory usage may be troublesome.
    """
    prev_page, prev_y = self.page, self.y
    recorder = FPDFRecorder(self, accept_page_break=False)
    recorder.page_break_triggered = False
    self._in_unbreakable = True
    LOGGER.debug("Starting unbreakable block")
    yield recorder
    y_scroll = recorder.y - prev_y + (recorder.page - prev_page) * self.eph
    if prev_y + y_scroll > self.page_break_trigger or recorder.page > prev_page:
        LOGGER.debug("Performing page jump due to unbreakable height")
        recorder.rewind()
        # pylint: disable=protected-access
        # Performing this call through .pdf so that it does not get recorded & replayed:
        recorder.pdf._perform_page_break()
        recorder.replay()
        recorder.page_break_triggered = True
    self._in_unbreakable = False
    LOGGER.debug("Ending unbreakable block")
def will_page_break(self, height)

Let you know if adding an element will trigger a page break, based on its height and the current ordinate (y position).

Args

height : float
height of the section that would be added, e.g. a cell

Returns: a boolean indicating if a page break would occur

Expand source code
def will_page_break(self, height):
    """
    Let you know if adding an element will trigger a page break,
    based on its height and the current ordinate (`y` position).

    Args:
        height (float): height of the section that would be added, e.g. a cell

    Returns: a boolean indicating if a page break would occur
    """
    return (
        # ensure that there is already some content on the page:
        self.y > self.t_margin
        and self.y + height > self.page_break_trigger
        and not self.in_footer
        and self.accept_page_break
    )
def write(self, h: float = None, txt: str = '', link: str = '', print_sh: bool = False)

Prints text from the current position. When the right margin is reached, a line break occurs at the most recent space or soft-hyphen character, and text continues from the left margin. A manual break happens any time the \n character is met, Upon method exit, the current position is left just at the end of the text.

Args

h : float
line height. Default value: None, meaning to use the current font size.
txt : str
text content
link : str
optional link to add on the text, internal (identifier returned by FPDF.add_link()) or external URL.
print_sh : bool
Treat a soft-hyphen (\u00ad) as a normal printable character, instead of a line breaking opportunity. Default value: False
Expand source code
@check_page
def write(
    self, h: float = None, txt: str = "", link: str = "", print_sh: bool = False
):
    """
    Prints text from the current position.
    When the right margin is reached, a line break occurs at the most recent
    space or soft-hyphen character, and text continues from the left margin.
    A manual break happens any time the \\n character is met,
    Upon method exit, the current position is left just at the end of the text.

    Args:
        h (float): line height. Default value: None, meaning to use the current font size.
        txt (str): text content
        link (str): optional link to add on the text, internal
            (identifier returned by `FPDF.add_link`) or external URL.
        print_sh (bool): Treat a soft-hyphen (\\u00ad) as a normal printable
            character, instead of a line breaking opportunity. Default value: False
    """
    if not self.font_family:
        raise FPDFException("No font set, you need to call set_font() beforehand")
    if isinstance(h, str):
        raise ValueError(
            "Parameter 'h' must be a number, not a string."
            " You can omit it by passing string content with txt="
        )
    if h is None:
        h = self.font_size

    page_break_triggered = False
    normalized_string = self.normalize_text(txt).replace("\r", "")
    styled_text_fragments = self._preload_font_styles(normalized_string, False)

    text_lines = []
    multi_line_break = MultiLineBreak(
        styled_text_fragments,
        print_sh=print_sh,
    )
    # first line from current x position to right margin
    first_width = self.w - self.x - self.r_margin
    text_line = multi_line_break.get_line_of_given_width(
        first_width - 2 * self.c_margin, wordsplit=False
    )
    # remaining lines fill between margins
    full_width = self.w - self.l_margin - self.r_margin
    fit_width = full_width - 2 * self.c_margin
    while (text_line) is not None:
        text_lines.append(text_line)
        text_line = multi_line_break.get_line_of_given_width(fit_width)
    if not text_lines:
        return False

    for text_line_index, text_line in enumerate(text_lines):
        if text_line_index == 0:
            line_width = first_width
        else:
            line_width = full_width
            self.ln()
        new_page = self._render_styled_text_line(
            text_line,
            line_width,
            h=h,
            border=0,
            new_x=XPos.WCONT,
            new_y=YPos.TOP,
            align=Align.L,
            fill=False,
            link=link,
        )
        page_break_triggered = page_break_triggered or new_page
    if text_line.trailing_nl:
        # The line renderer can't handle trailing newlines in the text.
        self.ln()
    return page_break_triggered
def write_html(self, text, *args, **kwargs)

Parse HTML and convert it to PDF. cf. https://pyfpdf.github.io/fpdf2/HTML.html

Expand source code
def write_html(self, text, *args, **kwargs):
    """
    Parse HTML and convert it to PDF.
    cf. https://pyfpdf.github.io/fpdf2/HTML.html
    """
    kwargs2 = vars(self)
    # Method arguments must override class & instance attributes:
    kwargs2.update(kwargs)
    html2pdf = self.HTML2FPDF_CLASS(self, *args, **kwargs2)
    text = unescape(text)  # To deal with HTML entities
    html2pdf.feed(text)

Inherited members

class TextMode (value, names=None, *, module=None, qualname=None, type=None, start=1)

Values described in PDF spec section 'Text Rendering Mode'

Expand source code
class TextMode(CoerciveIntEnum):
    "Values described in PDF spec section 'Text Rendering Mode'"
    FILL = 0
    STROKE = 1
    FILL_STROKE = 2
    INVISIBLE = 3
    FILL_CLIP = 4
    STROKE_CLIP = 5
    FILL_STROKE_CLIP = 6
    CLIP = 7

Ancestors

Class variables

var CLIP
var FILL
var FILL_CLIP
var FILL_STROKE
var FILL_STROKE_CLIP
var INVISIBLE
var STROKE
var STROKE_CLIP

Inherited members

class TitleStyle (font_family: Optional[str] = None, font_style: Optional[str] = None, font_size_pt: Optional[int] = None, color: Union[int, tuple] = None, underline: bool = False, t_margin: Optional[int] = None, l_margin: Optional[int] = None, b_margin: Optional[int] = None)

TitleStyle(font_family, font_style, font_size_pt, color, underline, t_margin, l_margin, b_margin)

Expand source code
class TitleStyle(NamedTuple):
    font_family: Optional[str] = None
    font_style: Optional[str] = None
    font_size_pt: Optional[int] = None
    color: Union[int, tuple] = None  # grey scale or (red, green, blue)
    underline: bool = False
    t_margin: Optional[int] = None
    l_margin: Optional[int] = None
    b_margin: Optional[int] = None

Ancestors

  • builtins.tuple

Instance variables

var b_margin : Optional[int]

Alias for field number 7

var color : Union[int, tuple]

Alias for field number 3

var font_family : Optional[str]

Alias for field number 0

var font_size_pt : Optional[int]

Alias for field number 2

var font_style : Optional[str]

Alias for field number 1

var l_margin : Optional[int]

Alias for field number 6

var t_margin : Optional[int]

Alias for field number 5

var underline : bool

Alias for field number 4

class XPos (value, names=None, *, module=None, qualname=None, type=None, start=1)

Positional values in horizontal direction for use after printing text.

Expand source code
class XPos(CoerciveEnum):
    "Positional values in horizontal direction for use after printing text."

    LEFT = intern("LEFT")  # self.x
    "left end of the cell"

    RIGHT = intern("RIGHT")  # self.x + w
    "right end of the cell (default)"

    START = intern("START")
    "left start of actual text"

    END = intern("END")
    "right end of actual text"

    WCONT = intern("WCONT")
    "for write() to continue next (slightly left of END)"

    CENTER = intern("CENTER")
    "center of actual text"

    LMARGIN = intern("LMARGIN")  # self.l_margin
    "left page margin (start of printable area)"

    RMARGIN = intern("RMARGIN")  # self.w - self.r_margin
    "right page margin (end of printable area)"

Ancestors

Class variables

var CENTER

center of actual text

var END

right end of actual text

var LEFT

left end of the cell

var LMARGIN

left page margin (start of printable area)

var RIGHT

right end of the cell (default)

var RMARGIN

right page margin (end of printable area)

var START

left start of actual text

var WCONT

for write() to continue next (slightly left of END)

Inherited members

class YPos (value, names=None, *, module=None, qualname=None, type=None, start=1)

Positional values in vertical direction for use after printing text

Expand source code
class YPos(CoerciveEnum):
    "Positional values in vertical direction for use after printing text"

    TOP = intern("TOP")  # self.y
    "top of the first line (default)"

    LAST = intern("LAST")
    "top of the last line (same as TOP for single-line text)"

    NEXT = intern("NEXT")  # LAST + h
    "top of next line (bottom of current text)"

    TMARGIN = intern("TMARGIN")  # self.t_margin
    "top page margin (start of printable area)"

    BMARGIN = intern("BMARGIN")  # self.h - self.b_margin
    "bottom page margin (end of printable area)"

Ancestors

Class variables

var BMARGIN

bottom page margin (end of printable area)

var LAST

top of the last line (same as TOP for single-line text)

var NEXT

top of next line (bottom of current text)

var TMARGIN

top page margin (start of printable area)

var TOP

top of the first line (default)

Inherited members